Learning to Read Authentic Texts in Chinese as a Foreign Language: An Action Research-Based Investigation of a New Approach towards Raising Students’ Awareness of Literary Function Words

Open access

Abstract

Understanding the gist of Chinese authentic functional texts is a particular challenge for advanced beginners not only because of the morpho-syllabic writing system, but also due to the particular literary style. A didactic concept based on Stanovich’s (2000) and Gernsbacher’s (1997) reading models was developed for teaching Chinese as a foreign language at the university level. It is aimed at drawing the students’ attention to highly frequent literary function words in everyday texts, facilitating both the formation of relevant units of meaning and the application of higher-level strategic reading skills. The implementation of this new approach was investigated using the framework of action research. The data were analysed with qualitative methods and the results incorporated into the several teaching cycles. Two quasi-experiments were conducted to elicit individual problem solutions by the students. These data were collected in the form of video recordings of group work and student worksheets. Due to the predictability of specific literary structures, a certain automatisation in processing literary structures could indeed be achieved. Further construction of meaning, however, will have to be achieved through attentive-driven strategies, e.g. targeted dictionary use. It is important to train the students’ executive control mechanisms (e.g. comprehension monitoring), since Chinese can easily lead into a ‘dead end’ due to the absence of word segmentation and a high degree of polysemy.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Altrichter Herbert and Peter Posch. 2007. Lehrerinnen und Lehrer erforschen ihren Unterricht. Unterrichtsentwicklung und Unterrichtsevaluation durch Aktionsforschung. Bad Heilbrunn: Klinkhardt.

  • Anderson John R. 2000. Learning and Memory: An Integrated Approach. New York: Wiley Blackwell.

  • Baddeley Alan. 2003. “Working Memory and Language: An Overview.” Journal of Communication Disorders 36 (3) pp. 189-208.

  • Bazant-Kimmel Christina. 2017. “Chinesische Texte lesen lernen: Aktionsforschend begleitete Entwicklung und Erprobung eines didaktischen Konzepts zur Schriftsprachlichkeit chinesischer Gebrauchstexte.” Ph.D. thesis University of Vienna Austria. Online: http://othes.univie.ac.at/49498/1/50640.pdf (accessed: September 2018).

  • Bernhardt Elizabeth Buchter. 1991. Reading Development in a Second Language: Theoretical Empirical and Classroom Perspectives. Norwood: Ablex Pub. Corp.

  • Bernhardt Elizabeth. 2005. “Progress and Procrastination in Second Language Reading.” Annual Review of Applied Linguistics 25 pp. 133-150.

  • Bimmel Peter. 2002. “Strategisch lesen lernen in der Fremdsprache.” ZFF - Zeitschrift für Fremdsprachenforschung 13 (1) pp. 113-141.

  • Buttaroni Susanna. 1997. Fremdsprachenwachstum. Sprachenpsychologischer Hintergrund und didaktische Anleitungen. Ismaning: Hueber.

  • Butzkamm Wolfgang and John A. W. Caldwell. 2009. The Bilingual Reform: A Paradigm Shift in Foreign Language Teaching. Tübingen: Narr.

  • CEFR see Council of Europe

  • Chéng Lù 程璐.2012. “Shì lùn duìwaì Hànyǔ jiàoxué zhōng de shūmiànyǔ jiàoxué 试论对外汉语 教学中的书面语教学 [Teaching the Literary Style in Chinese as a Foreign Language].” Běifāng Wénxué Zázhìwǎng 北方文学杂志网. Online: http://www.bfwx.org/a/jiaoyu/jx/2012/0808/1939.html (accessed: September 2018).

  • Council of Europe. 2001. The Common European Framework of Reference for Languages: Learning Teaching Assessment. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Online: https://rm.coe.int/168045b15e (accessed: September 2018)

  • DeFrancis John. 1966. “Why Johnny Can’t Read Chinese.” Journal of the Chinese Language Teaching Association 1 pp. 1-20.

  • EBCL European Benchmarks for the Chinese Language. 2012. Online: http://ebcl.eu.com/wpcontent/uploads/2013/02/EBCL-A1-A2+-Can-do-Statements-Oct-2012.pdf (accessed: September 2018).

  • Everson Michael E. 2007. “Yǐ Zhōngwén wéi wàiyǔ de yǔyán xuéxí zhě Zhōngwén zìxíng rènzhī fāzhǎn yánjiū suǒ dàilái de qǐshì 以中文为外语的语言学习者中文字形认知发展研究所带来 的启示 [Developing Orthographic Awareness among CFL Learners: What the Research Tells us].” In Andreas Guder Jiāng Xīn 江新 and Wàn Yèxīn 万业馨 eds. Hànzì de rènzhī yǔ jiàoxué 汉字的认知与教学 [The Cognition Learning and Teaching of Chinese Characters]. Běijīng 北京: Běijīng Yǔyán Dàxué Chūbǎnshè 北京语言大学出版社 pp. 33-50.

  • Fachverband Chinesisch e.V. (FaCh). 2016. “Déyǔ qū Hànyǔ jiàoxué xiéhuì 2016 nián duì gāo děng xuéxiào Zhōngguó xiāngguān xuékē xuéshì/shuòshì xuéwèi Hànyǔ jiàoxué de Láibǐxī 德语区汉语 教学协会2016 年对高等学校中国相关学科学士/硕士学位汉语教学的莱比锡建议 [Leipzig Recommendations of the Fachverband Chinesisch 2016 on Chinese teaching in the Context of China-oriented B.A. and M.A. Degree Programmes].” CHUN Chinesischunterricht 31 pp. 63-66.

  • Féng Shènglì 冯胜利.2006. “Lùn Hànyǔ shūmiànyǔ zhèngshì yǔtǐ de tèzhēng yǔ jiàoxué 论汉语书 面正式语体的特征与教学 [About the Characteristics and the Teaching of the Literary Style in Chinese].” Shìjiè Hànyǔ Jiàoxué 世界汉语教学 [Chinese teaching in the world] 4 pp. 98-106.

  • Feng Shengli. 2009. “On Modern Written Chinese.” Journal of Chinese Linguistics 37 (1) pp. 145-162.

  • Féng Shènglì 冯胜利 and Yán Líng 阎玲. 2013. “Lùn yǔtǐ yǔfǎ yǔ jiàocái biānxiě 论语体语法与 教材编写 [The Grammar of Different Registers and their Consideration in the Conception of Textbooks].” Journal of the Chinese Language Teaching Association 48 (1) pp. 1-27.

  • Gernsbacher Morton Ann. 1997. “Two Decades of Structure Building.” Discourse Processes 23 (3) pp. 265-304.

  • Grabe William. 2009. Reading in a Second Language: Moving from Theory to Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • Grabe William and Fredricka L. Stoller. 2011. Teaching and Researching Reading. Harlow: Longman/Pearson.

  • Guder Andreas. 2005. “Kann man das überhaupt lernen? Zur Vermittlung von Chinesisch als distanter Fremdsprache.” Lebende Sprachen 2 pp. 61-68.

  • Guder Andreas. 2006. “Jenseits der affinen Fremdsprachen: Dimensionen des Lehrens und Lernens von Chinesisch.“ Neusprachliche Mitteilungen aus Wissenschaft und Praxis 2 pp. 16-25.

  • Guder Andreas. 2008. “Was sind distante Fremdsprachen? Ein Definitionsversuch am Beispiel des Chinesischen.” In Eva Burwitz-Melzer ed. Sprachen lernen - Menschen bilden. Dokumentation zum 22. Kongress für Fremdsprachendidaktik der Deutschen Gesellschaft für Fremdsprachenforschung (DGFF) Giessen 3. - 6. Oktober 2007. Baltmannsweiler: Schneider-Verl. Hohengehren pp. 69-78.

  • Harley Trevor A. 2006. The Psychology of Language: From Data to Theory. Hove: Psychology Press Ltd.

  • Koch Peter and Wulf Österreicher. 1985. “Sprache der Nähe - Sprache der Distanz. Mündlichkeit und Schriftlichkeit im Spannungsfeld von Sprachtheorie und Sprachgeschichte.” Romanistisches Jahrbuch 36 pp. 15-43.

  • Koda Keiko. 2005. Insights into Second Language Reading: A Cross-Linguistic Approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • Koda Keiko. 2007. “Reading and Language Learning: Crosslinguistic Constraints on Second Language Reading Development.” Language Learning 57 (1) pp. 1-44.

  • Krames Marion. 2015. “Leseverstehen und lexikalische Kompetenz in Chinesisch als Fremdsprache (ChaF). Auswertung psycholinguistischer Untersuchungen im Hinblick auf die Lese- und Wortschatzdidaktik in ChaF.” Ph.D. thesis University of Trier Germany. Online: http://ubt.opus.hbz-nrw.de/volltexte/2015/936/ (accessed: September 2018)

  • Kupfer Peter. 2007. “Eloquent but Blind: The Problem of Reading Proficiency in Chinese as a Foreign Language.” In Andreas Guder Jiāng Xīn 江新 and Wàn Yèxīn 万业馨 eds. Hànzì de rènzhī yǔ jiàoxué 汉字的认知与教学 [The Cognition Learning and Teaching of Chinese Characters]. Běijīng 北京: Běijīng Yǔyán Dàxué Chūbǎnshè 北京语言大学出版社 pp. 1-15.

  • Mayring Philipp. 2010. Qualitative Inhaltsanalyse. Grundlagen und Techniken. Weinheim: Beltz Pädagogik.

  • McNiff Jean and Jack Whitehead. 2011. All you Need to Know About Action Research. Los Angeles: Sage.

  • Pearson P. David and Linda G. Fielding. 1991. “Comprehension Instruction.” In Rebecca Barr Michael L. Kamil Peter B. Mosenthal and P. David Pearson eds. Handbook of Reading Research vol. 2. New York: Longman pp. 815-860.

  • Pressley Michael. 2006. Reading Instruction that Works: The Case for Balanced Teaching. New York: Guilford Press.

  • Reininger Doris. 2010. “Durch Daten zu Taten. Datensammlung und Datenanalyse bei der Aktionsforschung im Unterricht: Anmerkungen Vorschläge Beispiele.” In Klaus-Börge Boeckmann Elisabeth Feigl-Bogenreiter and Doris Reininger-Stressler eds. Forschendes Lehren. Aktionsforschung im Fremdsprachenunterricht. Wien: VÖV (Verband Österreichischer Volkshochschulen) Edition Sprachen 4 pp. 13-18.

  • Rosner Erhard. 1992. Schriftsprache. Studien zur Diglossie des modernen Chinesisch. Bochum: Brockmeyer.

  • Seliger Herbert W. and Elana Shohamy. 1989. Second Language Research Methods. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • Stanovich Keith E. 2000. Progress in Understanding Reading: Scientific Foundations and New Frontiers. New York: Guilford Press.

  • Sūn Déjīn 孙德金. 2012. Xiàndài shūmiàn Hànyǔ zhōng de wényán yǔfǎ chéngfèn yánjiū 现代书面 汉语中的文言语法成分 [Research on Literary Function Words in Modern Chinese Literary Language]. Běijīng 北京: Shāngwù Yìnshūguǎn 商务印书馆.

  • Wallace Michael J. 2008. Action Research for Language Teachers. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • Wáng Yǐng 王颖. 2003. “‘Shūmiànyǔ’ hé ‘kǒuyǔ’ de yǔtǐ chābié yǔ duìwài Hànyǔ jiàoxué 书面 语”和“口语”的语体差别与对外汉语教学 [The Differences Between the Literary and Colloquial Style and Its Implications for ChaF Lessons].” Journal of the Chinese Language Teaching Association 38 (3) pp. 91-102.

  • Zhāng Jīnlán 張金蘭. 2012. Duìwài Huáyǔwén jiàoxué zhōng de shūmiànyǔ jiàoxué - yǐ Táiwān Huáyǔwén jiàocái wéi zhǔ suǒ zuò de tàntǎo 對外華語文教學中的書面語教學-以台灣華語文 教材爲主所做的探討 [The Teaching of the Written Language Style - an Investigation of Tai wanese ChaF Teaching Materials]. Taiwan: Guólì Zhèngzhì Dàxué Huáyǔwén Zhōngxīn 國力 政治大學華語文中心. Online: http://www.doc88.com/p-4814704476876.html (accessed: September 2018).

Search
Journal information
Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 161 161 1
PDF Downloads 119 119 3