Energy Aspects of Green Buildings – International Experience

L. Kauskale 1 , I. Geipele 1 , N. Zeltins 2 , and I. Lecis 1
  • 1 Riga Technical University, Institute of Civil Engineering and Real Estate Economics, 6-210 Kalnciema Street, LV-1048, Riga, Latvia
  • 2 Institute of Physical Energetics, 11 Krivu Street, Riga, LV-1006, Latvia


At present, reduction of greenhouse gas emissions is one of the main environmental priorities globally, and implementation of sustainability aspects in the construction industry, including energy aspects, is of major importance for long-term environmental development, as buildings have a long life cycle and require many resources both for construction and operation periods. The aim of the research is to analyse energy aspects of green buildings. The results of research show that the construction of green buildings can significantly result in energy savings and has other benefits for different market participants. Future research directions have been identified as well.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • 1. Actiņa, G., Geipele, I., and Zeltiņš, N. (2014). Role of building thermal inertia as a selection criterion of edifice renovation strategy and energy plan development in Latvia: Case study. In Proceedings of the 2014 International Conference on Frontier of Energy and Environment Engineering (ICFEEE 2014) / ed. by Wen-Pei Sung, Jimmy (C.M.) Kao, Taiwan, Taiwan, 6–7 December 2014. Leiden: CRC Press/Balkema, 2014, pp. 361–365. ISBN 978-1-138-02691-9. e-ISBN 978-1-315-73991-5. DOI:10.1201/b18135-73

  • 2. Ahn, Y.H., Jung, C.W., Suh, M., and Jeon, M.H. (2016). Integrated construction process for green building. Procedia Engineering, 145, 670–676. DOI: 10.1016/j.proeng.2016.04.065

  • 3. Ambec, S., and Lanoie, P. (2008). Does it pay to be green? A systematic overview. Academy of Management Perspectives, 22, 45–62, as cited in Chen, P.-H., Ong, C.-F., & Hsu, S.-C. (2016). Understanding the relationships between environmental management practices and financial performances of multinational construction firms. Journal of Cleaner Production. 139, 750–760.

  • 4. Azar, E., Nikolopoulou, C., and Papadopoulos, S. (2016). Integrating and optimizing metrics of sustainable building performance using human-focused agent-based modelling. Applied Energy, 183, 926–937.

  • 5. Balaban, O., and Oliveira, J. A. P. (2016). Sustainable buildings for healthier cities: Assessing the co-benefits of green buildings in Japan. Journal of Cleaner Production. Article in Press, 1–11.

  • 6. Calderón, C., James, Urquizo, J., and McLoughlin, A. (2015). A GIS domestic building framework to estimate energy end-use demand in UK sub-city areas. Energy and Buildings, 96, 236–250.

  • 7. Chan, E.H.W., Qian, Q.K., and Lam, P.T.I. (2009). The market for green building in developed Asian cities – The perspectives of building designers. Energy Policy, 37, 3061–3070. DOI:10.1016/j.enpol.2009.03.057

  • 8. Christersson, M., Vimpari, J., and Junnila, S. (2015). Assessment of financial potential of real estate energy efficiency investments – A discounted cash flow approach. Sustainable Cities and Society, 18, 66–73.

  • 9. European statistics database Eurostat. Statistics database. Retrieved from

  • 10. Geipele, I., Geipele, S., Staube, T., Ciemleja, G., and Zeltins, N. (2016). The development of nanotechnologies and advanced materials industry in science and entrepreneurship: Socioeconomic and technical indicators. A case study of Latvia (Part Two). Latvian Journal of Physics and Technical Sciences, 53(5), 31–42. DOI: 10.1515/lpts-2016-0034

  • 11. Ilhan, B., and Yaman, H. (2016). Green building assessment tool (GBAT) for integrated BIM-based design decisions. Automation in Construction. 70, 26–37.

  • 12. Kenisarin, M., and Mahkamov, K. (2016). Passive thermal control in residential buildings using phase change materials. Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews. 55, 371–398.

  • 13. Khalid, F., Dincer, I., and Rosen, M.A. (2016). Techno-economic assessment of a renewable energy based integrated multigeneration system for green buildings. Applied Thermal Engineering, 99, 1286–1294.

  • 14. Krasowska, K., and Olczyk, N. (2015). Energieprobleme mit Plattenbauten [Energy Problems in Prefabricated Buildings]. In Schmidt, B., Schmidt, D., & Venymer, H. (Hrsg.) Energieökonomisch Wohnen: 9. Konferenz Solarökologische Bausanierung im SolarZentrum Mecklenburg-Vorpommern. Internationale Konferenz Solarökologische Bausanierung [Energy Economical Living: 9th Conference Solar Ecological Building Restoration in the Solar Center Mecklenburg-Vorpommern], pp. 135–148, 2015, Lübow-Wietow. Berlin Wien Zürich: Beuth Ltd.

  • 15. Liua, H., and Lin, B. (2016). Ecological indicators for green building construction. Ecological Indicators, 67, 68–77.

  • 16. Office of the Federal Environmental Executive (2003). The Federal Commitment to Green Building: Experiences and Expectations. As cited in Marble institute. Green building – History of Green buildings. Retrieved from

  • 17. Ouyang, X., and Lin., B. (2015). Analyzing energy savings potential of the Chinese building materials industry under different economic growth scenarios. Energy and Buildings, 109, 316–327.

  • 18. Qin, X., Mo, Y., and Jing. L. (2016). Risk perceptions of the life-cycle of green buildings in China. Journal of Cleaner Production, 126, 148–158.

  • 19. RTU Marketing and Communication Department (2016). RTU radītā unikālā līdzstrāvas elektroapgādes sistēma ļaus ietaupīt līdz 15% elektroenerģijas [Unique DC Power Supply System Created at RTU will save up to 15 % of Electricity]. Retrieved from

  • 20. Sakipova, S., Jakovics, A., Gendelis, S., and Buketov, E.A. (2016). The potential of renewable energy sources in Latvia. Latvian Journal of Physics and Technical Sciences, 53(1), 3–13. DOI: 10.1515/lpts-2016-0001.

  • 21. Saulessūknis. Solārās apkures sistēma [Saulessuknis. A solar heating system]. (2015). as cited in Sakipova, S., Jakovics, A., Gendelis, S., & Buketov, E.A. (2016). The potential of renewable energy sources in Latvia. Latvian Journal of Physics and Technical Sciences, 53(1), 3–13. DOI: 10.1515/lpts-2016-0001.

  • 22. Shi, Q., Yan, Y., Zuo, J., and Yu, T. (2016). Objective conflicts in green buildings projects: A critical analysis. Building and Environment, 96, 107–117.

  • 23. Vigants, E. (2014). Renewable energy in Latvia. In Conf. Renewable Energy in the Baltics and the Future of European Energy Security, Washington, DC, December 15, 2014. Retrieved from

  • 24. Vyas, G.S., and Jha, K.N. (2017). Benchmarking green building attributes to achieve cost effectiveness using a data envelopment analysis. Sustainable Cities and Society, 28, 127–134.

  • 25. Wang, W., Zmeureanu, R., and Rivard, H. (2005). Applying multi-objective genetic algorithmsin green building design optimization. Building and Environment, 40, 1512–1525. DOI:10.1016/j.buildenv.2004.11.017

  • 26. Wing, S.N.C., Canha, D., and Pretorius, J.H.C. (2015). Residential solar water heating - Measurement and verification. Case studies. In 8th International Conference on Energy Efficiency in Domestic Appliances and Lighting. 26–28 August 2015, Lucerne-Horw, Switherland. Retrieved from

  • 27. Zhao, D., McCoy, A., and Du, J. (2016). An empirical study on the energy consumption in residential buildings after adopting green building standards. Procedia Engineering, 145, 766–773. DOI: 10.1016/j.proeng.2016.04.100


Journal + Issues