Introduction: The aim of this study was to evaluate the prevalence of Clostridium botulinum and Clostridium perfringens in food samples purchased from Polish producers. Material and Methods: The analyses were performed on 260 food samples collected in Lublin and Subcarpathian regions: 56 of smoked meat, 21 of pork meat, 20 of dairy products, 26 of vegetable and fruit preserves, 40 of ready-to-eat meals, 27 of fish preserves, and 70 of honey collected directly from apiaries. Results: C. botulinum strains were isolated from 2.3% (6/260) of samples and the isolates were classified as toxin types A (4/260) and B (2/260). C. perfringens strains were isolated from 14% (37/260) of samples. All the isolates were classified as toxin type A, 28 of them were able also to produce α toxin and 9 - β2 toxin. Conclusion: On the basis of the obtained results it could be suggested that risk assessment, especially regarding the entire honey harvesting process, should be provided in order to ensure the microbiological safety of the products to be consumed by infants and people with a weakened immune system.
5. De Medici D., Anniballi F., Wyatt G. M., Lindström M., Messelhäußer U., Aldus C.F., Delibato E., Korkeala H., Peck M.W., Fenicia L.: Multiplex PCR for detection of botulinum neurotoxin-producing Clostridia in clinical, food, and environmental samples. Appl Environ Microbiol 2009, 20, 6457-6461.
6. Dover N., Barash J.R., Hill K.K., Xie G., Arnon S.S.: Molecular characterization of a novel botulinum neurotoxin type H gene. J Infect Dis 2014, 209, 192-202.
7. Grass J.E., Gould L.H., Mahon B.E.: Epidemiology of foodborne disease outbreaks caused by Clostridium perfringens, United States, 1998-2010. Foodborne Pathog Dis 2013, 10, 131-136.
8. Grenda T., Kukier E., Sieradzki Z., Goldsztejn M., Kwiatek K.: Molecular diversity of Clostridium botulinum and phenotypically similar strains. Pol J Vet Sci 2016, 4, 831-840.
16. Mustafina R., Maikanov B., Wiśniewski J., Tracz M., Anusz K., Grenda T., Kukier E., Goldsztejn M., Kwiatek K.: Contamination of honey produced in the Republic of Kazakhstan with Clostridium botulinum. Bull Vet Inst Pulawy 2015, 59, 241-246.
17. Nakano H., Okabe T., Hashimoto H., Sakaguchi G.: Incidence of Clostridium botulinum in honey of various origins, Jpn J Med Sci Biol 1990, 43, 183-195.
18. Nakano H., Sakaguchi G.: An unusually heavy contamination of honey products by Clostridium botulinum type F and Bacillus alvei. FEMS Microbiol Lett 1991, 63, 171-177.
19. Nevas M.: Clostridium botulinum in honey production with respect to infant botulism. Academic dissertation. Faculty of Veterinary Medicine. University of Helsinki, Helsinki 2006.
20. Nevas M., Lindström M., Hautamäki K., Puoskari S., Korkeala H.: Prevalence and diversity of Clostridium botulinum types A, B, E and F in honey produced in the Nordic countries. Int J Food Microbiol 2005, 105, 145-151.
21. Polish Standard: Animal feeding stuffs - Requirements and microbiological examinations. PN - R - 64791:1994.
22. Raphael B.H., Andreadis J.D.: Real-time PCR detection of the nontoxic non-hemagglutinin gene as a rapid screening method for bacterial isolates harboring the botulinum neurotoxin (A-G) gene complex. J Microbiol Meth 2007, 71, 343-346.
23. Samul D., Worsztynowicz P., Leja K., Grajek W.: Beneficial and harmful roles of bacteria from the Clostridium genus. Acta Biochim Pol 2013, 60, 515-521.
24. Sharma S.K., Whiting R.C.: Methods for detection of Clostridium botulinum toxin in foods. J Food Prot 2005, 68, 1256-1263.
25. Tomassetti F., Milito M., Dell’Aira E., De Santis L., Migliore G., Formato G.: Microbiological comparison between honey in jar and honey in comb for human. Ital J Food Saf 2009, 3, 65-66.