Policy Entrepreneurship and Policy Transfer: Flood Risk Governance in Northern Sweden

Open access

Abstract

Central to policies relating to risk governance at the regional and local levels is the interaction between the public and private sectors also referred to as networked governance. At the same time, the role of political actors in general and policy entrepreneurs in particular, in terms of policy change, has gained considerable traction in recent policy scholarship. The purpose of this study was to investigate the change in governance arrangements resulting in the formation of a coordination network in regional flood risk management-the first of its kind in Sweden. Our research is guided by the following questions: first, would the policy change (the establishment of the networks)have taken place if a policy entrepreneur were not part of the policy transfer process? Second, what is the role of policy entrepreneurship in the implementation of the policy after its nationwide adoption? Third, what other factors played a role in the variation of the results in the implemented policy that is, the enforced networks? We find the role of a policy entrepreneur key in the policy transfer from the regional to the national level. In order to investigate the resultant networks, we draw from B. Guy Peters (1998) and his conceptualization of factors which affect the politics of coordination. In addition to the presence of a policy entrepreneur, we compare: (i) pluriformity of network members;(ii) member interdependence; (iii) redundancy of structures, and (iv) degree of formality (in terms of meetings). Our findings suggest that entrepreneurs contribute to the variation in the functionality of the enforced river groups, though other factors play a significant role as well.Most importantly, perhaps, we did not identify entrepreneurs in any of the river groups which were not functional.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Agreement 1 (1995) Överenskommelse om att gemensamt inrätta ensamordningsgrupp för information vid höga flöden m.m [Agreementto jointly set up a coordination group for information at high flow etc.].County Administrative Board of Jämtland.

  • Agreement 2 (2005) Överenskommelse om inrättande avsamordningsgrupp för information vid höga flöden m.m. [Agreement onthe establishment of the coordination of information at high flow rates etc.] 2005-06-01. County Administrative Board of Jämtland.

  • Anton T. J. (1969). Policy-Making and Political Culture in Sweden.Scandinavian Political Studies 4 88-102.

  • Benson D. & Jordan A. (2011). What Have We Learned from PolicyTransfer Research? Dolowitz and Marsh Revisited. Political StudiesReview 9(3) 366-378. doi: 10.1111/j.1478-9302.2011.00240.x

  • Boholm Å. Corvellec H. & Karlsson M. (2012). The practice of riskgovernance: lessons from the field. Journal of Risk Research 15(1) 1-20.doi: 10.1080/13669877.2011.587886

  • Bogason P. & Toonen T. A. J. (1998). Introduction: Networks in PublicAdministration. Public Administration 76(2) 205-227. doi: 10.1111/1467-9299.00098

  • Blavoukos S. & Bourantonis D. (2012). Policy Entrepreneurs andForeign Policy Change: The Greek-Turkish Rapprochement in the1990s. Government and Opposition 47(04) 597-617. Doi:10.1111/j.1477-7053.2012.01376.x

  • Brouwer S. & Biermann F. (2011). Towards Adaptive Management: Examining the Strategies of Policy Entrepreneurs in Dutch WaterManagement. Ecology and Society 16(4). doi: 10.5751/ES-04315-160405

  • Brouwer S. & Huitema D. (2015). Policy Entrepreneurs in the Picture: theWho What Why and How. Paper presented at the ICPP Milan.

  • Capano G. Rayner J. & Zito A. R. (2012). Governance from the bottomup: Complexity and divergence in comparative perspective. PublicAdministration 90(1) 56-73. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9299.2011.02001.x

  • Ceballos G. Ehrlich P. R. Barnosky A. D. García A. Pringle R. M. & Palmer T. M. (2015). Accelerated modern human-induced specieslosses: Entering the sixth mass extinction. Science Advances 1(5).doi: 10.1126/sciadv.1400253

  • David C.-P. (2015). How do entrepreneurs make national security policy?A case study of the G.W. Bush administration. In I. Narbutaité Aflaki E.Petridou & L. Miles (Eds.) Entrepreneurship in the Polis: UnderstandingPolitical Entrepreneurship (pp. 151-170). Burlington VT: Ashgate.

  • David C.-P. & Barthe S. (2013). Entrepreneurs decision making: theexample of national security policies of the G. W. Bush administration(2001-2004). Canadian Journal of Political Science-Revue Canadienne DeScience Politique 46(3) 549-574. doi: 10.1017/s0008423913000851

  • Dolowitz D. P. (2000). Introduction. Governance 13(1) 1-4.doi: 10.1111/0952-1895.00120

  • Dolowitz D. & Marsh D. (1996). Who Learns What from Whom: aReview of the Policy Transfer Literature. Political Studies 44(2) 343-357.doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9248.1996.tb00334.x

  • Dror Y. (1993). Steering Requisites for Crises-Opportunities: On-GoingChallenges. Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management 1(1) 13.

  • Evans M. & Davies J. (1999). Understanding Policy Transfer: A Multi-Level Multi-Disciplinary Perspective. Public Administration 77(2) 361-385. doi: 10.1111/1467-9299.00158

  • FEMA. (2015 01/05/2016). Dam Ownership in the United States.Retrieved from http://www.fema.gov/dam-ownership-united-states

  • Gerring J. (2008). Case Selection for Case-Study Analysis: Qualitativeand Quantitative Techniques. In J. M. Box-Steffensmeier H. E. Brady and D. Collier (Eds.) The Oxford Handbook of Political Methodology (pp.645-684). Oxford: OUP.

  • Hammond D. R. (2013). Policy Entrepreneurship in China’s Response toUrban Poverty. Policy Studies Journal 41(1) 119-146. doi: 10.1111/psj.12005

  • Hays B. D. (2012). The Curious Case of School Prayer: PoliticalEntrepreneurship and the Resilience of Legal Institutions. Politics andReligion 5(02) 394-418. doi: 10.1017/S1755048312000089

  • Hedelin B. & Hjerpe M. (2015). Examining the benefits ofcollaboration: the Provider-User Matrix for collaborative flood riskmanagement illustrated by the case of the Ljusnan River Sweden.Journal of Natural Resources Policy Research 7(1) 53-69. doi: 10.1080/19390459.2014.977539

  • IPCC (2014) Climate Change 2014: Synthesis Report. Contributionof Working Groups I II and III to the Fifth Assessment Report of theIntergovernmental Panel on Climate Change [Core Writing Team R.K.Pachauri and L.A. Meyer (eds.)]. IPCC: Geneva Switzerland

  • Kingdon J. W. (1984). Agendas Alternatives and Public Policies. Boston: Little and Brown.

  • Larsson T. & Bäck H. (2008). Governing and Governance in Sweden.Malmö: Student Litteratur.

  • Macdonald J. M. (2015). Eisenhower’s Scientists: Policy Entrepreneursand the Test-Ban Debate 1954-1958. Foreign Policy Analysis 11(1) 1-21.doi: 10.1111/fpa.12018

  • Marsden G. & Stead D. (2011). Policy transfer and learning in the fieldof transport: A review of concepts and evidence. Transport Policy 18(3) 492-500. doi: http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tranpol.2010.10.007

  • Meydani A. (2009). Political Transformations and Political Entrepreneurs: Israel in Comparative Perspective. New York: Palgrave McMillan.

  • Meydani A. (2015). Political Entrepreneurs and Institutional Change: Governability Liberal Political Culture and the 1992 Electoral Reformin Israel. In I. Narbutaité Aflaki E. Petridou and L. Miles (Eds.) Entrepreneurship in the Polis: Understanding Political Entrepreneurship(pp. 87-102). Burligton VT: Ashgate.

  • Miles L. (2015). Political Entrepreneurship as Painful Choices: AnExamination of Swedish (Post)-Neutrality Security Policy. In I. NarbutaitéAflaki E. Petridou and L. Miles (Eds.) Entrepreneurship in the Polis: Understanding Political Entrepreneurship (pp. 133-150). Burlington VT: Ashgate.

  • Miles L. & Petridou E. (2015). Entrepreneurial Resilience: Role of PolicyEntrepreneurship in the Political Perspective of Crisis Management. InR. Bhamra (Ed.) Organisational Resilience: Concepts Integration andPractice (pp. 67-81). Boca Raton FL: CRC Press.

  • Mintrom M. (2000). Policy Entrepreneurs and School Choice. Washington: Georgetown University Press.

  • Mintrom M. (2013). Policy entrepreneurs and controversial science: governing human embryonic stem cell research. Journal of EuropeanPublic Policy 20(3) 442-457. doi: 10.1080/13501763.2012.761514

  • Mintrom M. (2015). Policy Entrepreneurs and Morality Politics: Learningfrom Failure and Success. In I. Narbutaité Aflaki E. Petridou andL. Miles (Eds.) Entrepreneurship in the Polis: Understanding PoliticalEntrepreneurship (pp. 103-118). Burlington VT: Ashgate.

  • Mintrom M. & Norman P. (2009). Policy Entrepreneurship and PolicyChange. Policy Studies Journal 37(4) 649-667. doi: 10.1111/j.1541-0072.2009.00329.x

  • Niklasson L. (2016). Challenges and Reforms of Local and RegionalGovernments. In J. Pierre (Ed.) The Oxford Handbook of Swedish Politics(pp. 399-413). Oxford: OUP.

  • Nyberg L. (2008) . Översvämningar och riskhantering ‐ enforskningsöversikt. Rapport Publ.nr MSB 0013‐09. Stockholm: Myndigheten för samhällsskydd och beredskap

  • Oakerson R. J. & Parks R. B. (1999). Citizen voice and publicentrepreneurship: the organizational dynamic of a complex metropolitancountry. In M. D. McGinnis (Ed.) Polycentricity and Local Public Economies: Readings from the Workshop in Political Theory and Policy Analysis (pp.306-328). Ann Arbor: The University of Michigan Press.

  • Oakerson R. J. & Parks R. B. (2011). The Study of Local Public Economies: Multi-organizational Multi-level Institutional Analysis and Development.Policy Studies Journal 39(1) 147-167. doi: 10.1111/j.1541-0072.2010.00400.x

  • Olausson P. M. (2012). Riskhantering genom nätverk: de svenskaälvgrupperna. Paper presented the NORKOM Olso University.

  • Olausson P.M. & Nyhlén J. (forthcoming). Organization and decisionmakingin enforced networks: the river groups in northern Sweden.Journal of Contingencies and Crisis Management

  • Osborne D. & Gaebler T. (1992). Reinventing Government: How theentrepreneurial spirit is transforming the public sector from schoolhouse tostatehouse city hall to the Pentagon. Reading MA: William Patrick.

  • Ostrom V. (1999). Polycentricity Part 1. In M. D. McGinnis (Ed.) Polycentricity and Local Public Economies: Readings from the Workshop inPolitical Theory and Policy Analysis (pp. 53-74). Ann Arbor: The Universityof Michigan Press.

  • Patton M. Q. (1987). How to use qualitative methods in evaluation.Newbury Park CA: Sage..

  • Peters B. G. (1998). Managing Horizontal Government: The Politics ofCo-Ordination. Public Administration 76(2) 295-311. doi: 10.1111/1467-9299.00102

  • Peters B. G. (2015). Advanced Introduction to Public Policy. Cheltenham UK: Edward Elgar.

  • Petersson O. (2016). Rational Politics: Commissions of Inquiry and theReferral System in Sweden. In J. Pierre (Ed.) The Oxford Handbook ofSwedish Politics (pp. 650-662). Oxford: OUP.

  • Petridoiu E. (2014). Theories of the Policy Process: Contemporary Scholarship and Future Directions. Policy Studies Journal 42 S12-S32.doi: 10.1111/psj.12054

  • Petridou E. (2017). Political entrepreneurship in Swedish: towards a(re)theorization of entrepreneurial agency (Doctoral dissertation). MidSweden University: Sundsvall.

  • Petridou E. Narbutaité Aflaki I. & Miles L. (2015). Unpacking theTheoretical Boxes of Political Entrepreneurship. In I. Narbutaité Aflaki E.Petridou and L. Miles (Eds.) Entrepreneurship in the Polis: UnderstandingPolitical Entrepreneurship (pp. 1-16). Burlington VT: Ashgate.

  • Pierson C. (2003). Learning from Labor? Welfare Policy Transfer betweenAustralia and Britain. Commonwealth and Comparative Politics 41(1) 77-100. doi: 10.1080/71399960

  • Renn O. Klinke A. & van Asselt M. (2011). Coping with Complexity Uncertainty and Ambiguity in Risk Governance: A Synthesis. Ambio 40(2) 231-246. doi: 10.1007/s13280-010-0134-0

  • Rhodes R. A. W. (1997) Understanding Governance: Policy Networks Governance Reflexivity and Accountability. Administrative Theory andPraxis 20 (3) pp. 394-396.

  • Rose R. (1991). What Is Lesson-Drawing? Journal of Public Policy 11(1) 3-30. doi: 10.2307/4007336Rose R. (2005). Learning from Comparative Public Policy. London: Routledge.

  • Schneider M. Teske P. & Mintrom M. (1995). Public Entrepreneurs: Agents for Change in American Government. Princeton: PrincetonUniversity Press.

  • SMHI: Swedish Meteorological and Hydrological Institute (2015)“Översvämingar.” http://www.smhi.se/kunskapsbanken/hydrologi/oversvamningar-1.5949. Accessed on 5 March 2016

  • Smith A. (2004). Policy transfer in the development of UK climate policy.Policy and Politics 32(1) 79-93. doi: 10.1332/030557304772860067

  • SOU (1995). Utredningen om damsäkerket och höga flöden. [Investigationon the security of dams and high flows] Stockholm: Statens OffentligaUtredningar.

  • Sørensen E. & Torfing J. (2009). Making Governance Networks Effectiveand Democratic through Metagovernance. Public Administration 87(2) 234-258. doi: 10.1111/j.1467-9299.2009.01753.x

  • Verduijn S. (2015). Setting the Political Agenda: A Policy EntrepreneurialPerspective on Urban Development in the Netherlands. In I. NarbutaitéAflaki E. Petridou and L. Miles (Eds.) Entrepreneurship in the Polis: Understanding Political Entrepreneurship (pp. 55-72). Burlington VT: Ashgate.

  • Windrum P. (2008). Innovation and Entrepreneurship in Public Services.In P. Windrum and P. Koch (Eds.) Innovation in Public Sector Services: Entrepreneurship Creativity and Management (pp. 3-10). Chelenham UK: Edward Elgar.

  • Yin R. K. (1994). Case study research: Design and methods (2nd ed.).Thousand Oaks CA: Sage.

  • Zahariadis N. (2007). The multiple streams framework: structure limitations prospects. In P. A. Sabatier (Ed.) Theories of the PolicyProcess (pp. 65-92). Boulder CO: Westview.

Search
Journal information
Impact Factor


CiteScore 2018: 0.50

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.156
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.430

Cited By
Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 362 252 20
PDF Downloads 203 151 4