The Discursive Creation of the ‘Montenegrin Language’ and Montenegrin Linguistic Nationalism in the 21st Century

Open access

Abstract

The Serbo-Croatian language was but one of the casualties of the wars of the Yugoslav secession, as it was discursively forcefully split into first two, then three, and recently four allegedly separate languages. The first line of division was promoted by Serbian and Croatian nationalist linguists during the early nineties, soon to be followed by the invention of a standalone Bosnian language, even though contemporary linguistics agrees that Serbo-Croatian, with its regional varieties (as a standardized polycentric language), is a single language. Coming late into the fray, nationally-minded linguists from Montenegro achieved the state-driven proclamation of Montenegrin as a separate language to be in official use within the state only in 2007. Backed by the state, a coterie of nationalist literary theorists and linguists started discursively promoting Montenegrin in academic and public spaces, mostly via the dubious quasi-academic journal titled Lingua Montenegrina. This article explores the manners in which Montenegrin nationalist linguists discursively created what they dub to be a language entirely separate from all variants of Serbo-Croatian, which are mostly contained in encomiastic texts about key nationalists, attempts to classify several allophones and phonemes as well as to assert the purported primordial character of the language.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • BLOMMAERT Jan–VERSCHUEREN Jef. 1998. The Role of Language in European Nationalist Ideologies. Language ideologies: Practice and Theory 2(3): 355–375.

  • BLUMDaniel. 2002. SpracheundPolitik. SprachpolitikundSprachnationalismus in der Republik Indien und dem sozialistischen Jugoslawien (1945–1991). Heidelberg.

  • BOŃKOVSKI Robert. 2008. Pismo Czarnogórców–historia i współczesnoś ́. Lingua Montenegrina 1: 191–202.

  • BROM Przemysław. 2008. Społoleczne uwarunkowania funkcjonowania języka na przykładzie współczesnego standardu czarnogórskiego. Lingua Montenegrina 2: 61–66.

  • BUSCH Brigitta. 2004. Sprachen im Disput. Medien und Öffentlichkeit in multilingualen.

  • CHILTON Paul A. 2004. Analyzing Political Discourse – Theory and Practice. London: Routledge.

  • ČIRGIĆ Adnan. 2011. Crnogorski jezik u prošlosti i sadašnjosti. Podgorica: Institut za crnogorski jezik i književnost.

  • 2010. Povodom standardizacije crnogorskog jezika. Matica 1: 7–48.

  • DEL VALLE José. 2011. Transnational Languages: Beyond Nation and Empire? An Introduction. Sociolinguistic Studies 5(3): 387.

  • DIL Anwar S–HAUGEN Einar. 1972. The Ecology of Language: Essays. Stanford University Press.

  • ĐUROVIĆ Žarko. 2008a. O crnogorsko-hrvatskim primorskim odnošajima. Lingua Montenegrina 1: 319–341.

  • 2008b. Osvrt na stavove o naučnom doprinosu akademika Vojislava P. Nikčevi ́a. Lingua Montenegrina 1(1): 5–52.

  • DŽANKIĆ Jelena. 2014. Reconstructing the Meaning of Being Montenegrin. Slavic Review 73(2): 347–371.

  • FISHMAN Joshua A. 1993. The Earliest Stage of Language Planning: “The First Congress” phenomenon. In: Fishman Joshua A. (ed.) The Earliest Stage of Language Planning. Berlin–New York: Walter de Gruyter. 333–348.

  • 1974. Language Modernization and Planning in Comparison with Other Types of National Modernization and Planning. Language in Society 2(1): 23–43.

  • FRANČIĆ Anđela. 2005. Normativnost i višefunkcionalnost u hrvatskome standardnom jeziku. Hrvatska sveučilišna naklada.

  • FRIEDMAN Victor A. 1999. Linguistic Emblems and Emblematic Languages: On Language as Flag in the Balkans. Ohio State University Department of Slavic and East European Languages and Literatures.

  • GLUŠICA Rajka. 2011. About the Re-standardization of the Montenegrin Language. Studi Slavistici 8(1): 271–278.

  • GONZALEZ Roseann Duenas. 2001. Introduction. In: Gonzalez Roseann Duenas–Melis Ildiko (eds) Language Ideologies XXV–XXXVI. Tucson.

  • GRABIĆ Daniel. 2010. Montenegrizität: Sprache und Kirche im Spiegel des Identitätsdiskurses in der Republik Montenegro 1990–2007. Peter Lang Gmbh– Internationaler Verlag der Wissenschaften.

  • GREENBERG Robert D. 2004. Language and Identity in the Balkans. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • GRÖSCHEL Bernhard. 2009. Das Serbokroatische zwischen Linguistik und Politik: mit einer Bibliographie zum postjugoslavischen Sprachenstreit. Munich: Lincom Europa.

  • 2003. Postjugoslavische Amtssprachenregelungen–Soziolinguistische Argumente gegen die Einheitlichkeit des Serbokroatischen? Srpski jezik 8(1–2): 135–196.

  • 2001. Bosnisch oder Bosniakisch? Zur glottonymischen sprachpolitischen und sprachenrechtlichen Fragmentierung des Serbokroatischen. Lingua et Linguae. Festschrift für Clemens-Peter Herbermann zum 60. Geburtstag 6: 159–188.

  • HAUGEN Einar. 1966. Dialect Language Nation. American Anthropologist 68(4): 922–935.

  • HINRICHS Uwe. 1997. Südslavische Sprachwissenschaft und Südosteuropa-Linguistik. Zeitschrift für Balkanologie 33(1): 9–25.

  • JACOBSEN Per. 2008. O strukturalno-lingvističkim konstantama srpskohrvatskog jezika (inventar fonema i fonotaktička struktura). In: Ostoji ́ Branislav (ed.) Jezička situacija u Crnoj Gori – norma i standardizacija. Podgorica: Crnogorska akademija nauka i umjetnosti.

  • JELUŠIĆ Božena. 2008. Smiješno je započinjati ve ́ dobijenu bitku. Vijesti 13 September 2008 5.

  • JOVANOVIĆ Srđan. 2017. The Ottoman Empire as Friend and Foe: Perceptions of Ottoman Rule in Serbia and Bosnia and Thereupon Based Nationalisms. Review of Social Studies 4(1): 71–90.

  • 2012. Retrolingvistika. Istraživanje lingvističkog atavizma u Srbiji. Belgrade: Medijska knjižara Krug.

  • JUDT Tony–LACORNE Denis (eds). 2004. Language Nation and State: Identity Politics in a Multilingual Age. Palgrave Macmillan US.

  • KADIĆ V. 2009. Prof. dr Jelica Stojanovi ́ sa Odseka za srpski jezik o crnogorskom pravopisu: Pravila babe Smiljane. Večernje novosti 13 September.

  • KAPLAN Robert B.–BALDAUF Richard B. Jr. 1997. Language Planning from Practice to Theory. Clevendon–Philadelphia–Toronto–Sydney–Johannesburg: Multilingual Matters Ltd.

  • KATOWICE Silesian University of. Przemysław Brom – student V roku filologii słowiańskiej (kroatystyka) 2017 [cited on 22 February 2017. Available at: http://student.us.edu.pl/przemyslaw-brom.

  • KORDIĆ Snježana. 2010. Jezik i nacionalizam. Zagreb: Durieux. 2008. Crnogorska standardna varijanta policentričnog standardnog jezika. In: Ostoji ́ Branislav (ed.) Jezička situacija u Crnoj Gori – norma i standardizacija 35–47. Podgorica.

  • LAUSBERG Heinrich–ORTON David E.–R. ANDERSON Dean. 1998. Handbook of Literary Rhetoric: A Foundation for Literary Study. Leiden: Brill.

  • MATOVIĆ Veselin. 2006. Manjina progutala većinu. Belgrade: Politika. MATTUSCH Hans-Jürgen 1999. Vielsprachigkeit: Fluch oder Segen fur die Menschheit? Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang Gmbh.

  • MCLENNAN Sean. 1996. Sociolinguistic Analysis of ‘Serbo-Croatian’. Calgary Working Papers in Linguistics 18: 103–109.

  • MØRK Henning. 2008. Neka pragmatična zapažanja o postojanju srpskohrvatskog jezika. In: Ostoji ́ Branislav (ed.) Jezička situacija u Crnoj Gori – norma i standardizacija Podgorica: Crnogorska akademija nauka i umjetnosti.

  • NAKAZAWA Takuya. 2015. The Making of “Montenegrin Language”: Nationalism Language Planning and Language Ideology after the Collapse of Yugoslavia (1992–2011). Südosteuropäische Hefte 4(1): 127–141.

  • NIGHTINGALE Andrea Wilson. 1993. The Folly of Praise: Plato’s Critique of Encomiastic Discourse in the Lysis and Symposium. The Classical Quarterly (New Series) 43(01): 112–130.

  • NIKČEVIĆ Vojislav. 2009. Pogledi i refleksije o crnogorskom jeziku. Lingua Montenegrina 3: 114–147.

  • 2008a. Fonemi ś ź 3 ć đ u crnogorskom standardnom jeziku (Kritički osvrt na jedan prilog). Lingua Montenegrina 2: 25–39.

  • 2008b. Crnogorska redakcija staroslovjenskoga književnog jezika i Miroslavljevo jevanđelje. Lingua Montenegrina 1: 57–74.

  • 1993. Crnogorski jezik: geneza tipologija razvoj strukturne osobine funkcije. 1 (Od artikulacije govora do 1360. godine): Matica crnogorska.

  • OSIJEK University of. Univerzitet J. J. Strossmayera – doktorska škola. 2017 [cited on 25 February 2017]. Available at: http://www.unios.hr/doktorska/.

  • PEROVIĆ Miljenko A.–SILIĆ Josip–VASILIJEVA Ljudmila. 2009. Pravopis crnogorskoga jezika i rječnik crnogorskoga jezika (pravopisni rječnik). Podgorica: Crna Gora – Ministarstvo prosvjete i nauke.

  • PERSSON Gunnar. 1974. Repetition in English: P. 1 Sequential Repetition. Acta Universitatis Upsaliensis. Studia Anglistica Upsaliensia 21.

  • PIPER Predrag. 2003. Srpski između velikih i malih jezika. Beogradska knjiga.

  • POHL Hans-Dieter. 1996. Serbokroatisch – Rückblick und Ausblick. In: Ohneiser Ingeborg (ed.) Wechselbeziehungen zwiischen slawischen Sprachen Literaturen und Kulturen in Vergangenheit und Gegenwart. Innsbruck: Institut für Sprachwissenschaft. 205–219.

  • RONELLE Alexander–JOSEPH Brian D.–NAYLOR Kenneth F. 2000. In Honor of Diversity: The Linguistic Resources of the Balkans. Ohio State University: Department of Slavic and East European Languages and Literatures.

  • SPAGIŃSKA-PRUSZAK Agnieszka. 2005a. Język-naród-państwo (dylematy językowe narodów Jugosławii). W: Riječ god.

  • 2005b. Język emocji: Studium leksykalno-semantyczne rzeczownika w języku polskim rosyjskim i serbsko-chorwackim. Oficyna Wydawnicza Leksem.

  • 2005c. Sytuacja językowa w byłej Jugosławii. Oficyna Wydawnicza Leksem.

  • 2003. Intelekt we frazeologii polskiej rosyjskiej i chorwackiej: z problemów językowego obrazu świata. Vol. 1. Wydawn: Uniwersytetu Gdańskiego.

  • TABOURET-KELLER Andrée. 1997. Language and Identity. In: Coulmas Florian (ed.) The Handbook of Sociolinguistics. Oxford. 315–326.

  • TANNEN Deborah. 2007. Talking Voices: Repetition Dialogue and Imagery in Conversational Discourse. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • THOMAS George. 1989. The Relationship between Slavic Nationalism and Linguistic Purism. Canadian Review of Studies in Nationalism 16: 1–2.

  • THOMAS Paul-Louis. 2003. Le serbo-croate (bosniaque croate monténégrin serbe): de l’étude d’une langue à l’identité des langues. Revue des études slaves 74(2): 311–325.

  • TOKARZ Emil. 2008. Język czarnogórski w dzisiejszej rzeczywistości językowego zróżnicowania południowej słowiańszczyzny. Lingua Montenegrina 1(1): 95–102.

  • TRIANDAFYLLIDOU Anna. 1998. National Identity and the ‘Other’. Ethnic and Racial Studies 21(4): 593–612.

  • van DIJK T. A. 2006. Discourse and Manipulation. Discourse & Society 17(3): 359–383.

  • 1993. Principles of Critical Discourse Analysis. Discourse & Society 4(2): 249–283.

  • VASILIYEVA Lyudmila. 2009. Cуспільна зумовленість існування чорногорської мови. ВІСНИК ЛЬВІВ. УН-ТУ 46(2): 48–54.

Search
Journal information
Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 138 138 12
PDF Downloads 92 92 9