Relationships among pre-slaughter stress, rigor mortis, blood lactate, and meat and carcass quality in pigs

Open access

Abstract

The aim of this study was to examine the relationships among pre-slaughter stress, rigor mortis, blood lactate, and meat and carcass quality in 100 pigs (cross between Naima sows and hybrids P-76 PenArLan boars). Before slaughter lairage time, handling and pig behavior were assessed for each animal. At exsanguination blood concentrations of lactate and cortisol were determined, while post-mortem were assessed: initial and ultimate pH value, temperature, drip, sensory and instrumental colour and marbling. On the carcasses the degree of rigor mortis and skin damage score were estimated, as well as carcass quality parameters. More developed (p<0.01) rigor mortis was observed after long lairage compared to short lairage. Higher intensity of rigor was found in pigs with higher blood lactate level (p<0.05) and with a greater thickness of subcutaneous fat tissue (p<0.05) and lower lean meat content (p<0.01). Higher blood lactate level was observed after long lairage compared to short (p<0.05) and after rough handling compared to gentle handling (p<0.01). In the group with blood lactate from 10 to 15 mmol/l meat temperature and skin blemishes score increased, while in the group with the highest blood lactate concentration (>15 mmol/l) initial pH decreased and L* value increased. These results suggest that in groups with higher blood lactate concentrations meat quality deteriorates.

References

  • 1. Lawrie RA, Ledward DA: Lawrie’s Meat Science, Seventh Edition, Woodhead Publishing Limited, Abington Hall, Abington, Cambridge, England; 2006.

  • 2. Aberle ED, Forrest JC, Gerrard DE, Mille EW, Hedrick HB, Judge MD, Merkel RA: Principles of meat science. Dubuque, IA, USA: Kendall/Hunt Co; 2001.

  • 3. Gregory NG: Physiology of stress, distress, stunning and slaughter. In: Animal welfare and meat quality. Willingford, UK, CAB International; 1998, 64-92.

  • 4. Warriss PD, Brown SN, Knowles TG: Measurements of the degree of development of rigor mortis as an indicator of stress in slaughtered pigs. Vet Rec 2003, 153: 739-742.

  • 5. Knowles T, Warriss PD: Stress physiology during transport. In: Livestock Handling and Transport. Grandin T, CAB International, Wallingford, UK; 2007, 312-328.

  • 6. Warriss PD, Brown SN, Adams SJM, Corlett IK: Relationships between subjective and objective assessments of stress at slaughter and meat quality in pigs. Meat Sci 1994, 38: 329-340.

  • 7. Hambrecht E, Eissen J, Nooijen IJ, Ducro BJ, Smits CHM, den Hartog LA, Verstegen MW: Preslaughter stress and muscle energy largely determine pork quality at two commercial processing plant. J Anim Sci 2004, 82: 1401-1409.

  • 8. Hambrecht EJ, Eissen J, Newman DJ, Smits CHM, den Hartog LA, Verstegen MWA: Negative effects of stress immediately before slaughter on pork quality are aggravated by suboptimal transport and lairage conditions. J Anim Sci 2005, 83: 440-448.

  • 9. Davis CE, Townsend WE, McCampbell HC: Early rigor detection in pork carcasses by foreleg position. J Anim Sci 1978, 46: 376-383.

  • 10. Honikel KO: Reference methods for the assessment of physical characteristics of meat. Meat Sci 1998, 49: 447-457.

  • 11. CIE, 1976, International Commission on Illumination, Colorimetry: Offi cial Recommendation of the International Commission on IlluminationPublication CIE No. (E-1.31), Paris, France: Bureau Central de la CIE.

  • 12. NPPC (National Pork Producers Council): Pork composition and quality assessment procedures. E. Berg (Ed.), National Pork Producers Council, Des Monica, Iowa, USA; 2000, 1-38.

  • 13. Kauffman RG, Cassens RG, Scherer A, Meeker DL: Variations in pork quality. National Pork Producers Council, Des Moines, IA, 1992.

  • 14. Serbian regulation 1985. Pravilnik o kvalitetu zaklanih svinja i kategorizaciji svinjskog mesa [Rules on quality of slaughtered pigs and categorization of pig meat]. Službeni list SFRJ, broj 2 [Offi cial Gazette of the SFRY, No 2].

  • 15. Savell JW, Mueller SL, Baird BE: The chilling of carcasses. Meat Sci 2005, 70: 449-459.

  • 16. Taylor AA, Dant SJ: Infl uence of carcass cooling rate on drip loss in pigment. J Food Technol 1971, 6: 131-139.

  • 17. Swatland HJ: Development of rigor mortis in intact sides of pork measured with a portable rigorometer. J Anim Sci 1985, 614: 882-826.

  • 18. Dransfi eld E, Lockyer DK: Cold shortening toughness in excised pork. Meat Sci 1985, 5: 13-19.

  • 19. Bruijnzeel AW, Stam R, Compaan JC, Wiegant VM: Stress-induced sensitization of CRH-ir but not P-CREB-ir responsivity in the rat central nerous system. Brain Res 2001, 908: 187-196.

  • 20. Stam R, Bruijnzeel AW, Wiegant V: Long-lasting stress sensitisation. Eur J Pharmacol 2000, 405: 217-224.

  • 21. Stam R, van Laar TJ, Akkermans LM, Wiegant VM: Variability factors in the expression of stress-induced behavioural sensitisation. Behav Brain Res 2002, 132: 69-76.

  • 22. Huff Lonergan E, Zhang W, Lonergan SM: Biochemistry of post-mortem muscle - Lessons on mechanisms of meat tenderization. Meat Sci 2010, 86: 184-195.

  • 23. Warriss PD: Meat Science: An Introductory Text, 2nd edition, Cabi Publishing, Cambridge; 2010.

  • 24. Shiang Liang C, Kang Chih C, Kou Joong L: The relationships between different degrees of rigor state carcasses and four meat quality and their stability during storage time. Taiwan J Agric Food Chem 2009, 47: 64-70.

  • 25. Tornberg E: Biophysical aspects of meat tenderness. Meat Sci 1996, 43: 175-191.

  • 26. Edwards LN, Grandin T, Engle TE, Ritter MJ, Sosnicki AA, Carlson BA, Anderson DB: The effects of pre-slaughter pig management from the farm to the processing plant on pork quality, Meat Sci 2010, 86: 938-944.

  • 27. Edwards LM, Engle TE Correa JA, Paradis MA, Grandin T, Anderson DB: The relationship between exsanguination blood lactate concentration and carcass quality in slaughter. Meat Sci 2010, 85: 435-440.

  • 28. Hemsworth PH, Barnett JL, Hofmeyr C, Coleman GJ, Dowling S, Boyce J: The effects of fear of humans and preslaughter handling on the meat quality of pigs. Aust J Agric Res 2002, 53: 493-501.

  • 29. Kraft W: Behavior of various plasma enzymes and electrolytes as well as of glucose, nonesterifi ed fatty acids and lactate in pigs during the stabling following transport to the abattoir. Zentralbl Veterinarmed A 1973, 20: 357-369.

  • 30. Salajpal K, Dikic M, Karolyi D, Sinjeri Z, Liker B, Kostelic A, Juric I: Blood serum metabolites and meat quality in crossbred pigs experiencing different lairage time. Ital J Anim Sci 2005, 4: 119-121.

  • 31. Dalla Costa OA, Ludke JV, Coldebella A, Kich JD, Paranhos da Costa MJR, Faucitano L, Peloso JV, Dalla Roza D: Effect of pre-slaughter management on physiological parameters of heavy-weight female pigs. Ciênc Rural 2009, 39: 852-858.

  • 32. Edwards LN, Grandin T, Engle TE Porter SP, Ritter MJ, Sosnicki AA, Anderson DB: Use of exsanguination blood lactate to assess the quality of pre-slaughter pig handling. Meat Sci 2010, 86: 384-390.

  • 33. Perez MP, Palacio J, Santolaria MP, Del Aceña MC, Chacón G, Verde MT, Calvo JH, Zaragoza MP, Gascón M, García-Belenguer S: Infl uence of lairage time on some welfare and meat quality parameters in pigs. Vet Res 2002, 33: 239-250.

  • 34. Benjamin ME, Gonyou HW, Ivers DJ, Richcardson LF, Jones DJ, Wagner JR, Seneriz R, Anderson DB: Effects of animal handling method on the incidence of stress responses in market swine in a model system [abstract]. J Anim Sci 2001, 79: 1.

  • 35. Ivers DJ, Richardson LF, Jones DJ, Watkins LE, Miller KD, Wagner JR, Seneriz R, Zimmermann AG, Bowers KA, Anderson DB: Physiological comparison of downer and nondowner pigs following transportation and unloading at a packing plant [abstract]. J Anim Sci 2002, 80: 10.

  • 36. Fernandez X, Meunier-Salaün MC, Ecolan P, Morméde P: Interactive effect of food deprivation and agonistic behavior on blood parameters and muscle glycogen in pigs. Physiol Behav 1994, 58: 337-345.

  • 37. Stoier S, Aaslyng MD, Olsen EV, Henckel P: The effect of stress during lairage and stunning on muscle metabolism and drip loss in Danish pork. Meat Sci 2001, 59: 127-131.

  • 38. Rabaste C, Faucitano L, Saucier L, Mormède P, Correa JA, Giguère A, Bergeron R: The effects of handling and group size on welfare of pigs in lairage and their infl uence on stomach weight, carcass microbial contamination and meat quality. Can J Anim Sci 2007, 87: 3-12.

  • 39. Lambooij E: Transport Of Pigs. In: Livestock Handling and Transport. Grandin T, CABI Publishing, New York, NY; 2000, 275-296.

  • 40. Swatland HJ: Progress in understanding the paleness of meat with a low pH. S Afr J Anim Sci 2004, 34: 1-7.

  • 41. Adzitey F, Nurul H: Pale Soft Exudative (PSE) and Dark Firm Dry (DFD) Meats: Causes and measures to reduce these incidences. Int Food Res J 2011, 18: 11-20.

Acta Veterinaria

The Journal of University of Belgrade

Journal Information


CiteScore 2016: 0.65

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2016: 0.388
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2016: 0.605

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 14 14 14
PDF Downloads 3 3 3