The performance of a molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) as selective packing material for solid-phase extraction (SPE) of residual glibenclamide in an industrial process was investigated. MIP was prepared using 4-vinylpyridine as monomer, ethylenedimethacrylate as cross linker, 2,2’-azobis-2-methylpropionitrile as initiator and dimethyl formamide as porogen. Use of acetonitrile as a rebinding solvent allows good recognition of the glibenclamide template. It was found that this polymer can be used for determination of trace levels of glibenclamide with a recovery percentage that could reach 87.1 %. Furthermore, the synthesized MIP showed higher selectivity towards glibenclamide than other compounds such as glimepiride and metformine. The synthesized MIP enabled direct determination of the target contaminant after an enrichment step that allowed quantification of glibenclamide at a concentration as low as 0.016 mg L-1. Combination of high performance liquid chromatography with MIP-SPE could be successfully used for quality control of pharmaceuticals during the cleaning process in the production of dry drug forms.
1. F. Bandarkar and I. Khattab, Simultaneous estimation of glibenclamide, gliclazide, and metformin hydrochloride from bulk and commercial products using a validated ultra fast liquid chromatography technique, J. Liq. Chromatogr. Rel. Techn. 33 (2010) 1814-1830; DOI: 10.1080/10826076.2010.532704.
2. P. Chaturvedi and R. Sharma, Development and validation of an RP-HPLC method for simultaneous analysis of a three-component tablet formulation containing metformin hydrochloride, pioglitazone hydrochloride, and glibenclamide, Acta Chromatogr. 20 (2008) 451-461; DOI: 10.1556/ AChrom.20.2008.3.11.
3. G. Vasapollo, R. Del Sole, L. Mergola, M. R. Lazzoi, A. Scardino, S. Scorrano and G. Mele, Molecularly imprinted polymers: Present and future prospective, Int. J. Mol Sci. 12 (2011) 5908-5945; DOI: 10.3390/ijms12095908.
4. S. Piletsky, E. Piletska, K. Karim, G. Foster, C. Legge and A. Turner, Custom synthesis of molecular imprinted polymers for biotechnological application: Preparation of a polymer selective for tylosin, Anal. Chim. Acta 504 (2004) 123-130; DOI: 10.1016/S0003-2670(03)00814-6.
5. Y. Lu, C. Li, X. Liu and W. Huang, Molecular recognition through the exact placement of functional groups on non-covalent molecularly imprinted polymers, J. Chromatogr. A 950 (2002) 89-97; DOI: 10.1016/S0021-9673(02)00058-4.
6. A. Kloskowski, M. Pilarczyk, A. Przyjazny and J. Namiesnik, Progress in development of molecularly imprinted polymers as sorbents for sample preparation, Crit. Rev. Anal. Chem. 39 (2009) 43-58; DOI: 10.1080/10408340802570223.
7. R. Garcia, M. Cabrita and Ana Maria Freitas, Application of molecularly imprinted polymers for the analysis of pesticide residues in food - A highly selective and innovative approach, Am. J. Anal. Chem. 2 (2011) 16-25; DOI: 10.4236/ajac.2011.228119.
8. European Pharmacopoea, 7th ed., Council of Europe, Strasbourg 2008.
9. V. Pichon, Selective sample treatment using molecularly imprinted polymers, J. Chromatogr. A1152 (2007) 41-53; DOI: 10.1016/j.chroma.2007.02.109.
10. J. Bastide, J. Cambon, F. Breton, S. Piletsky and R. Rouillon, The use of molecularly imprinted polymers for extraction of sulfonylurea herbicides, Anal. Chim. Acta 542 (2005) 97-103; DOI: 10.1016/j.aca.2005.02.054.
11. M. Castro López, M. Cela Pérez, M. Dopico García, J. López Vilarino, M. González Rodríguez and L. Barral Losada, Preparation, evaluation and characterization of quercetin-molecularly imprinted polymer for preconcentration and clean-up of catechins, Anal. Chim. Acta 721 (2012) 68-78; DOI: 10.1016/j.aca.2012.01.049.
12. G. Rushton, C. Karns and K. Shimizu, A critical examination of the use of the Freundlich isotherm in characterizing molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs), Anal. Chim. Acta 528 (2005) 107-113; DOI: 10.1016/j.aca.2004.07.048
13. R. Umpleby, S. Baxter, A. Rampey, G. Rushton, Y. Chen and K. Shimizu, Characterization of the heterogeneous binding site affinity distribution in molecularly imprinted polymers, J. Chromatogr. B 804 (2004) 141-149; DOI: 10.1016/ j.jchromb. 2004.01.064
14. A. Lagha, N. Adhoum and L. Monser, A molecularly imprinted polymer for the selective solid- -phase extraction of ibuprofen from urine samples, Open Anal. Chem. J. 4 (2011) 7-13; DOI: 10.2174/1875038901004010007.
15. R. Umpleby, S. Baxter, M. Bode, J. Berch, R. Shah and K. Shimizu, Application of the Freundlich adsorption isotherm in the characterization of molecularly imprinted polymers, Anal. Chim. Acta435 (2001) 35-42; DOI: 10.1016/S0003-2670(00)01211-3.