Antitumor and anti-inflammatory activities of polysaccharides isolated from Ganoderma lucidum
In this study, polysaccharides were isolated from Ganoderma lucidum (Polyporaceae) and their antitumor and anti-inflammatory activities were investigated using in vivo models. Potential antitumor activity was shown by G. lucidum polysaccharides (GLP) against solid tumor induced by Ehrlich's ascites carcinoma cells. GLP at 100 mg kg-1 body mass showed 80.8 and 77.6 % reduction in tumour volume and tumour mass, respectively, when administered 24 h after tumour implantation. Again, GLP at the same dose but when administered prior to tumour inoculation, showed 79.5 and 81.2 % inhibition of tumour volume and tumour mass, respectively. GLP showed significant dose-dependent activity in carrageenean-induced (acute) and formalin-induced (chronic) inflammation assays. At 100 mg kg-1, GLP exhibited 57.6 and 58.2 % inhibition in carrageenean-induced and formalin-induced assays, respectively.
Z. Ruan, J. Su, H. C. Dai and M. C. Wu, Characterisation and immunomodulating activities of polysaccharides from Lentinus edodes, Int. Immunopharmacol.5 (2005) 811-820; DOI: 10.1016/j.intimp.2004.11.011.
C. V. E. Ooi and F. Liu, Immunomodulation and antitumor activity of polysaccharide-protein complex, Curr. Med. Chem.7 (2000) 715-729; DOI: 10.2174/0929867003374705.
J. K. Zjaviony, Biologically active compounds from Aphyllophorales (Polypore) fungi, J. Nat. Prod.67 (2004) 300-310; DOI: 10.1021/np030372w.
G. Stanley, K. Harvey, V. Slivova, J. Jiang and D. Sliva, Ganoderma lucidum suppresses angiogenesis through the inhibition of secretion of VEGF and TGF-B1 from prostate cancer cells, Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.330 (2005) 46-52; DOI: 10.1016/j.bbrc.2005.02.116.
R. R. M. Paterson, Ganoderma - A therapeutic fungal biofactory, Phytochemistry67 (2004) 1985-2001; DOI: 10.1016/j.phytochem.2006.07.004.
S. P. Wasser, Medicinal mushrooms as a source of antitumor and immunomodulating polysaccharides, Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.60 (2002) 258-274; DOI: 10.1007/s00253-002-1076-7.
T. Mizuno, The extraction and development of antitumour-active polysaccharides from medicinal mushrooms in Japan, Int. J. Med. Mushr.1 (1999) 9-29.
T. A. Ajith and K. K. Janardhanan, Cytotoxic and antitumor activities of a polypore macro fungus, Phellinus rimosus (Berk) Pilat, J. Ethnopharmacol.84 (2003) 157-162; DOI: 10.1016/S0378-8741(02)00292-1.
G. Chihara, J. Hamuro, Y. Y. Maeda, Y. Arai and F. Fukuoka, Fractionation and purification of the polysaccharide with marked antitumor activity, especially lentinan from Lentinus edodes (Berk) Sing (an edible mushroom), Cancer Res.30 (1970) 2776-2781.
C. A. Winter, E. A. Risley and G. W. Nuss, Carrageenan induced oedema in hind paw of the rats as an assay for anti-inflammatory drugs, Proc. Soc. Exp. Biol. Med.111 (1962) 544-547.
T. T. Chau, Analgesic Testing in Animal Models, in Pharmacological Methods in the Control of Inflammation, Alan R. Liss Inc, New York 1989.
T. A. Ajith and K. K. Janardhanan, Antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of Phellinus rimosus (Berk) Pilat, Indian J. Exp. Biol.39 (2001) 1166-1169.
W.-T. Hung, S.-H. Wang, C.-H. Chen and W.-B. Yang, Structure determination of β-glucans from Ganoderma lucidum with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry, Molecules13 (2008) 1538-1550; DOI: 10.3390/molecules13081538.
Q.-Y. Lu, Y.-S. Jin, Q. Zhang, Z. Zhang, D. Heber, V. L. W. Go, F. P. Li and J. Y. Rao, Ganoderma lucidum extracts inhibit growth and induce actin polymerization in bladder cancer cells in vitro, Cancer Lett.216 (2004) 9-20; DOI: 10.1016/j.canlet.2004.06.022.
X. Zhu and Z. Lin, Modulation of cytokines production, granzyme B and perforin in murine CIK cells by Ganoderma lucidum polysaccharides, Carbohyd. Polym.63 (2006) 188-197; DOI: 10.1016/j.carbpol.2005.08.002.
S. Jones and K. K. Janardhanan, Antioxidant and antitumour activity of Ganoderma lucidum (Curt.: Fr) P. Karst. - Reishi. (Aphyllophoromycetideae) from South India, Int. J. Med. Mushr.2 (2000) 195-200.
N. Sheena, T. A. Ajith and K. K. Janardhanan, Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive activities of Ganoderma lucidum occurring in South India, Pharm. Biol.41 (2003) 4301-4304; DOI: 10.1076/phbi.41.4.301.15677.