Achieving Sustainable Community-Based Tourism in Rural Myanmar: The Case of River Ayeyarwaddy Dolphin Tourism

Open access

Abstract

Community-based tourism is recognised as being a potentially important means by which economic development can take place in rural Myanmar. One particular project in this vein is the dolphin-based tourism organized at six villages on the River Ayeyarwaddy in the northern Mandalay division. Qualitative research featuring personal interviewing of international tourists and service providers in the region indicated the potential for this project but also the formidable problems of poor connectivity and service provision that will need to be overcome to achieve success. The threats to the dolphins concerned and the indifference with which they are treated by many community members suggest real threats to the sustainability of the project as a whole.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Allendorf Teri D. Myint Aung and Melissa Songer “Using Residents’ Perceptions to Improve Park-People Relationships in Chatthin Wildlife Sanctuary Myanmar” Journal of Environmental Management Vol.99 (2012) pp.36-43.

  • Alves L.C.P.S. Artur Andriolo Mark Orams and Alexander F. Azevedo “The Growth of ‘Botos Feeding Tourism’ a New Tourism Industry Based on the Boto (Amazon River Dolphin Inia Geoffrensis) in the Amazonas State” Sitientibus Série Ciêncas Biológicas Vol.11 (2011) pp.8-15.

  • Arnstein S.R. “A Ladder of Citizen Participation” Journal of the American Institute of Planners Vol.35 No.4 (1969) pp.216-24.

  • Beasley Isabel Helene Marsh Thomas A. Jefferson and Peter Arnold “Conserving Dolphins in the Mekong River: The Complex Challenge of Competing Interests” in Ian C. Campbell ed. The Mekong: Biophysical Environment of an International River Basin Aquatic Ecology (Cambridge MA: Academic Press 2009) pp.363-87.

  • Bejdar Lars Amy Samuels Hal Whitehead Nick Gales Janet Mann Richard Connor Mike Heithaus Jana Watson-Capps Cindy Flaherty and Michael Krützen “Decline in Relative Abundance of Bottlenose Dolphins Exposed to Long-Term Disturbance” Conservation Biology Vol.20 No.6 (2006) pp.1791-8.

  • Besio Kathryn Lynda Johnston and Robyn Longhurst “Sexy Beasts and Devoted Mums: Narrating Nature through Dolphin Tourism” Environment and Planning A: Economy and Space Vol.40 No.5 (2008) pp.1219-34.

  • Blackstock Kirsty “A Critical Look at Community Based Tourism” Community Development Journal Vol.40 No.1 (2005) pp.39-49.

  • CEIC “Myanmar Tourism Statistics” (n.d.) available at: https://www.ceicdata.com/en/myanmar/tourism-statistics.

  • Chen C.L. “From Catching to Watching: Moving towards Quality Assurance of Whale/Dolphin Watching Tourism in Taiwan” Marine Policy Vol.35 No.1 (2011) pp.10-7.

  • Cohen Erik “The Wild and the Humanized: Animals in Thai Tourism” Anatolia: an International Journal of Tourism and Hospitality Research Vol.20 No.1 (2009) pp.100-18.

  • Connell D. “Participatory Development: An Approach Sensitive to Class and Gender” Development in Practice Vol.7 No.3 (1997) pp.248-59.

  • Connette Katherine J. LaJeunesse Grant Connette Asja Bernd Paing Phyo Kyaw Htet Aung Ye Tin Lun Zaw Min Thein Ned Horning Peter Leimgruber and Melissa Songer “Assessment of Mining Extent and Expansion in Myanmar Based on Freely-Available Satellite Imagery” Remote Sensing Vol.8 (2016) pp.912-26.

  • Constantine Rochelle Diane H. Brunton and Todd Dennis “Dolphin-Watching Tour Boats Change Bottlenose Dolphin (Tursiops Truncatus) Behaviour” Biological Conservation Vol.117 No.3 (2004) pp.299-307.

  • Dobson John “Towards a Utilitarian Ethic for Marine Wildlife Tourism” Tourism in Marine Environments Vol.7 No.3-4 (2011) pp.213-22.

  • Dolphins-World “How Many Dolphin Species Exist?” (2013) available at: www.dolphins-world.com/how-many-species-of-dolphins-are-in-the-world.

  • Drury Rebecca “Hungry for Success: Urban Consumer Demand for Wild Animal Products in Vietnam” Conservation and Society Vol.9 No.3 (2011) pp.247-57.

  • Fraser John Diana Reiss Paul Boyle Katherine Lemcke Jessica Sickler Elizabeth Elliott Barbara Newman and Sarah Gruber “Dolphins in Popular Literature and Media” Society and Animals Vol.14 No.4 (2006) pp.321-50.

  • Harrison David and Steven Schipani “Lao Tourism and Poverty Alleviation: Community-Based Tourism and the Private Sector” Current Issues in Tourism Vol.10 No.2/3 (2007) pp.194-230.

  • Hiwasaki Lisa “Community-Based Tourism: A Pathway to Sustainability for Japan’s Protected Areas” Society and Natural Resources: An International Journal Vol.19 No.8 (2006) pp.675-92.

  • Iorio Monica and Andrea Corsale “Community-Based Tourism and Networking: Viscri Romania” Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol.22 No.2 (2014) pp.234-55.

  • Khaing Mya Kay and John Walsh “Access to Mobile Telecommunications and the Internet in Rural Myanmar” International Review of Management and Development Studies Vol.2 No.4 (2018) pp.20-34 available at: http://crcltd.org/Files/Access_to_Mobile_Telecommunications_and_the_Internet_in_Rural_Myanmar.PDF.

  • Koning Hugo H. Hesiod the Other Poet: Ancient Reception of a Cultural Icon (Leiden: Koningklijke Brill 2010).

  • Kontogeorgopoulos Nick Anuwat Churyen and Varaphorn Duangsaeng “Success Factors in Community-Based Tourism in Thailand: The Role of Luck External Support and Local Leadership” Tourism Planning and Development Vol.11 No.1 (2014) pp.106-24.

  • Lapeyre Renaud “Community-Based Tourism as a Sustainable Solution to Maximise Impacts Locally? The Tsiseb Conservancy Case Namibia” Development Southern Africa Vol.27 No.5 (2010) pp.757-92.

  • Ministry of Hotels and Tourism (MHT) Myanmar Tourism Master Plan 2013-20 (Nay Pyi Taw: MHT 2013) available at: https://www.tourism.gov.mm/wp-content/uploads/2017/06/myanmar-tourism-master-plan-english-version.pdf.

  • Myint Tun “Environmental Governance in the SPDC’s Myanmar” in M. Skidmore and T. Wilson eds. Myanmar: the State Community and the Environment (Canberra: Australian National University E-Press 2007) available at: burmalibrary.org/docs4/BU-2006-Tun_Myint.pdf.

  • Nicholls Henry “Cute and Cuddly Dolphins Are Secretly Murderers” BBC (February 5th 2016) available at: www.bbc.com/earth/story/20160204-cute-and-cuddly-dolphins-are-secretly-murderers.

  • Okazaki Etsuko “A Community-Based Tourism Model: Its Conception and Use” Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol.16 No.5 (2008) pp.511-29.

  • Pakkawan Assawin “Another Dead Irrawaddy Dolphin Found in Lake Songkhla” Bangkok Post (July 18th 2018) available at: https://www.bangkokpost.com/news/general/1505634/another-deadirrawady-dolphin-found-in-lake-songkhla.

  • Reiss Diana The Dolphin in the Mirror: Exploring Dolphin Minds and Saving Dolphin Lives (Boston MA and New York NY: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt 2011).

  • Russell P. “Community-Based Tourism” Travel and Tourism Analyst No.5 (2000) pp.89-116.

  • Sindiga Isaac “Wildlife Based Tourism in Kenya: Land Use Conflicts and Government Compensation Policies over Protected Areas” Journal of Tourism Studies Vol.6 No.2 (December 1995) pp.45-55.

  • Tolkach Denis and Brian King “Strengthening Community-Based Tourism in a New Resource-Based Island Nation: Why and How?” Tourism Management Vol.48 (2015) pp.386-98.

  • Tosun Cevat and C.L. Jenkins “Regional Planning Approaches to Tourism Development: the Cse of Turkey” Tourism Management Vol.17 No.7 (1996) pp.519-31.

  • Trejos Bernardo and Lan-Hung Nora Chiang “Local Economic Linkages to Community-Based Tourism in Rural Costa Rica” Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography Vol.30 No.3 (November 2009) pp.373-87.

  • Wearing Stephen and Matthew McDonald “The Development of Community-Based Tourism: Rethinking the Relationship between Tour Operators and Development Agents as Intermediaries in Rural and Isolated area Communities” Journal of Sustainable Tourism Vol.10 No3 (2002) pp.191-206.

  • Wilson Clevo and Clem Tisdell “Conservation and Economic Benefits of Wildlife-Based Marine tourism: Sea Turtles and Whales as Case Studies” Human Dimensions of Wildlife Vol.8 No.1 (2003) pp.49-58.

  • Win Sandi and John Walsh “Myanmar’s Mothers at a Time of Structural Change” The Myanmar Journal Vol.4 No.2 (2017) pp.13-30 available at: http://www.komyra.com/bbs/board.php?-bo_table=articles&wr_id=73.

  • World Wildlife Fund (WWF) “Facts” (2018) available at: www.worldwildlife.org/species/irrawaddy-dolphin.

  • World Wildlife Fund (Cambodia) “Critically Endangered Mekong River Dolphin Population Increase for the First Time” (2018) available at: Cambodia.panda.org/news_press/press_release/.

  • Zakus David L. and Catherine L. Lysack “Revisiting Community Participation” Health Policy and Planning Vol.13 No.1 (1998) pp.1-12.

  • Zapata María José Michael C. Hall Patricio Lindo and Mieke Vanderschaege “Can Community-Based Tourism Contribute to Development as Poverty Alleviation? Lessons from Nicaragua” Current Issues in Tourism Vol.14 No.8 (November 2011) pp.725-49.

Search
Journal information
Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 101 101 45
PDF Downloads 89 89 53