The European Union (EU) and International Maritime Organisation (IMO) strongly feel the need for initiating measures to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions from international shipping lines regionally and globally using a package of tools called Green Shipping Practices (GSP). The GSP includes the use of global market-based mechanisms (MBMs), adoption of the energy efficiency design index (EEDI), establishing compulsory energy efficiency standards for all new ships, and the ship energy efficiency management plan (SEEMP) recommended as a new management tool for ship owners. Furthermore, the European Commission (EC) has proposed that owners of large ships using EU ports should report their verified emissions (Monitoring, Reporting and Verification of Carbon dioxide (CO2) emissions (MRV)) from 2018. In addition, IMO has introduced collection and reporting of ship fuel consumption data (SFCD) under the IMO SFCD scheme based on similar conditions, but related to global shipping. By providing a holistic analysis of the above-mentioned tools with a special focus on MRV and SFCD, this paper presents their economical and operational implications on the maritime transport processes. The working hypothesis that there is a correlation between the introduction of MRV and SFCD tools and reduction of maritime transport anthropopresure has been proved.
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
Brzozowska A., Miler R. (2017). Implementation of the Green Shipping Practices as an element of the maritime transport restructuring processes, [in:] Jaki A., Rojek T. (eds.), Contemporary issues and challenges of the organization management process, Foundation of the Cracow University of Economics, Cracow, 195–209.
Corbett J.J., Winebrake J.J., Green, E.H., Kasibhatla P., Eyring V., Lauer A. (2007). Mortality from ship emissions: A global assessment, Environmental Science & Technology.
Corbett, J.J. (2003). New directions: Designing ship emissions and impacts research to inform both science and policy. Atmospheric Environment, 37: 4719–4721.
Corbett, J.J., Köhler, H.W. (2003). Updated emissions from ocean shipping. J. Geophys. Res., 108: D204650, doi:10.1029/2003JD003751.
Endresen, Ø., Bakke, J., Sørgård, E., Berglen, T.F. and Holmvang, P. (2005). Improved modelling of ship SO2 emissions – a fuel-based approach. Atmospheric Environment, 39: 3621–3628.
Eyring, V., Köhler, H.W., van Aardenne, J., Lauer, A. (2005). Emissions from International Shipping: 1. The last 50 Years. J. Geophys. Res., 110: D17305, doi:10.1029/2004JD005619.
Final report of the Informal Cross Government/Industry Scientific Group of Experts (2012), IMO documents BLG 12/INF.10 and BLG 12/6/1.
Full Report of the Work Undertaken by the Expert Group on Feasibility Study and Impact Assessment of Possible Market-Based Measures (2010), IMO MEPC 61/Inf.2.
GREEN PAPER. Towards a future EU maritime policy: a European vision of the oceans and seas “How wrong is to call this planet Earth, if it is rather an Ocean,” SEC 2006, 689, Brussels 2006.
Hasselmann K., Hasselmann S., Giering R., Ocana V., von Storch H. (1997). Sensitivity study of optimal CO2 emission paths using a Simplified Structural Integrated Assessment Model (SIAM). Climatic Change 37.
Jurdziński M. (2012). Technological innovations on sea-going ships to reduce energy consumption and CO2 emissions, Maritime Academy Gdynia, No.12.
Lai, K-H., Lun, Y.H.V., Wong, C.W.Y., Cheng, T.C.E. (2013). Measures for evaluating green shipping practices implementation, Int. J. Shipping and Transport Logistics, Vol. 5, No. 2.
Lai, K.H., Lun, Y.H.V., Wong, C.W.Y., Cheng, T.C.E. (2011). Green shipping practices in the shipping industry: conceptualization, adoption, and implications, Resources Conservation and Recycling, Vol. 55, No.6.
Miler R., Szczepaniak T. (2014). EU’s GHGs from International Shipping Policy Impact on BSR Seaborne Trade Competition, [in:] Wymiary Logistyki – aspekt transportowy, red. R.Miler, A. Mytlewski, B. Pac, ZN WSB Gdańsk, tom 35, CeDeWu, Wydawnictwa Fachowe, Warszawa.
Pac B., Miler R. (2015) The Impact of Logistic Interoperability of Cargo Handling Terminals on Competitiveness of Commercial Sea Ports, [in:] Studies on Mobility and Transport Research vol. 5, MetaGIS-Systems, Mannheim 2015.
Reduction of GHG Emissions From Ships (2010) – Full Report of the Work Undertaken by the Expert Group on Feasibility Study and Impact Assessment of Possible Market-Based Measures, IMO MEPC 61/Inf.2 2010
Second IMO GHG Study 2009, International Maritime Organization (IMO) London, UK, April 2009;
Resolution MEPC.292(71) (2017) adopted on 7 July 2017, the European Parliament Council (EU) 2015 sig/757 of 29 April 2015 year in terms of Monitoring, Reporting and Verification of carbon dioxide CO2 emissions from maritime transport and amending the provisions of Directive 2009/16/EC sig(MRV).
The Baltic Transport Outlook 2030 (2011). (BTO2030 Executive Report – final version).
Vanroye K., van Mol B. (2009). Zmieniająca się rola portów morskich UE w globalnej logistyce morskiej – możliwości, wyzwania i strategie, ekspertyza Buck Consultants International dla PE i KE, Bruksela 2009.
Zatouroff J., Luke J. (2013). Global shipping, KPMG LLP, London.