The aim of this article is to present the interaction between the history of lesbian and gay culture and its identity on the one hand, and the connection between the visual art or visual culture on the other hand. This essay endeavors to interpret the different meanings attached to sexual identities by examining the diverse artistic activities of a variety of artists: both men and women (e.g. Steven Cohen, Clive van den Berg, Andrew Verster, Nicolas Hlobo, Jean Brundrit, Zanele Muholi). Employing an intersectional analytical approach, the article shows that the identity of art is constructed alongside a person’s multiple identities, such as race, gender, family ties, religion and class. The main research question is whether in today’s visual art originating from South Africa, which is characterized by a hegemony of heterosexual stereotypes, there is a significant place for gender oriented art?
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
Aina, Olabisi. 1998. “African Women at the Grassroots: The Silent Partners of the Women’s Movement.” Sisterhood, Feminisms, and Power: From Africa to the to the Diaspora. Ed. Obioma Nnaemeka. Trenton, NJ: Africa World Press. 80-93.
Arndt, Marlene, and Gideon de Bruin. 2006. “Attitudes Toward Lesbians and Gay Men: Relations with Gender, Race and Religion Among University Students.” PINS [Psychology in Society] (33): 16-30.
Berman, Esme. 1973. Art & Artists of South Africa: An Illustrated Biographical Dictionary and Historical Survey of Painters, Sculptors & Graphic Artists Since 1875. Cape Town: A.A. Balkema.
_____. 1993. Painting in South Africa. Halfway House: Southern Book Publishers.
_____. 2010. Alexis Preller: Africa, the sun and shadows. Johannesburg: Pan Macmillan.
Botha, Kevan, and Edwin Cameron. 1997. “South Africa.” Sociolegal Control of Homosexuality: A Multi-Nation Comparison. Eds. Donald J. West, and Richard Green. New York: Plenum Press. 23-26.
Cock, Jacklyn, and Alison Bernstein. 2002. Melting Pots and Rainbow Nations: Conversations about Difference in the United States and South Africa. Illinois: University of Illinois Press.
Cohen, Steven. 2014. Sexual Exhibitionism or Performance Art? 30 May 2016. .
Croucher, Sheila. 2002. “South Africa’s Democratisation and the Politics of Gay Liberation.” Journal of Southern African Studies. 28(2): 315-330.
Davis, Whitney. 1994. Gay and Lesbian Studies in Art History. Binghamton, New York: Haworth.
Elder, Glen. 1995. “Of Moffi es, Kaffi rs and Perverts: Male Homosexuality and the Discourse of Moral Order in the Apartheid State.” Mapping Desire: Geographies of sexualities. Eds. David Bell, and Gill Valentine. London and New York: Routledge. 50-58.
Epstein, Helen, and Rachel Jewkes. 2009. “The Myth of the Virgin Rape Myth”. The Lancet 374(9699): 1419.
Essof, Shereen. 21 Feb. 2012. South Africa: Patriarchy, Paper, and Reclaiming Feminism. 31 May 2016. .
Fihlani, Pumza. 30 June 2011. “South Africa’s lesbians fear ‘corrective rape.’” 1 Nov. 2013. .
Gevisser, Mark. 1995. “A Different Fight for Freedom. A History of South African Lesbian and Gay Organisation from the 1950s to the 1990s.” Defi ant Desire: Gay and Lesbian Lives in South Africa. Eds. Edwin Cameron, and Mark Gevisser. New York and London: Rutledge. 14-86.
Goodman, Ryan. 2001. “Beyond the Enforcement Principle: Sodomy Laws, Social Norms, and Social Panoptics.” California Law Review 89(3): 643-740.
Guattari, Felix. 1995. Chaosmosis: An Ethico Aesthetic Paradig. Trans. P. Bains and J. Pefanis. Sydney: Power Publications.
Gunkel, Henriette. 2010. The Cultural Politics of Female Sexuality in South Africa. London: Routledge.
Hunter, Mark. 2010. Love in the Time of AIDS: Inequality, Gender, and Rights in South Africa. Bloomington and Indianapolis: Indiana University Press.
Itano, Nicole. 2003. “South Africa Begins Getting Tough on Rape.” The Star 2(24): 4.
“Jacob Zuma Gives Cautious Support for Gay Marriage.” 14 Dec. 2012. 6 May 2017. .
Jordaan, Roxanne. 1987. “The Emergence of Black Feminist Theology in South Africa.” Journal of Black Theology in South Africa 1(2): 42-46.
Jordaan, Roxanne, and Thoko Mpumlwana. 2015. “Two Voices on Women’s Oppression and Struggle in South Africa.” Feminist Theology from the Third World. Ed. Ursula King. Oregon: Wipf and Stock Publishers. 150-169.
“Thabo Mbeki Compares Laws Against Gays to Apartheid.” n.d. 2 May 2017. .
Thomas, Kylie. 2014. Impossible Mourning: HIV/AIDS and Visuality After Apartheid. Lanham: Bucknell University Press.
Thompson, Leonard. 2001. A History of South Africa. III edition. New Haven and London: Yale University Press.
Williamson, Sue. 2004. Resistance Art in South Africa. Cape Town: David Phillip.
_____. 2009. South African Art Now. New York: Collins Design.
Williamson, Sue, and Asraf Jamal. 1996. Art in South Africa. The Future Present. Johannesburg: David Phillip.
Wyk, Lisa van. 2010. “Xingwana: Homophobic Claims ‘baseless, insulting.’” Mail & Guardian Online. 2 July 2016. .
Zabus, Chantal. 2014. “‘Writing with an Accent’: From Early Decolonization to Contemporary Gender Issues in the African Novel in French, English, and Arabic.” Language and Translation in Postcolonial Literatures, (Routledge Research in Postcolonial Literatures). Ed. Simona Bertacco. New York and London: Routledge. 32-47.