In April 1877 The South African Republic was annexed by the British Empire. This was a part of a wider scheme to unify the sub-continent under the British rule. The story is well known. Many works deals with the motives of Lord Carnarvon and other British decision-makers. Much less deals with the question of immediate Boer reaction, or to be exact, the reasons behind their inaction. This article deals with this problem. Tries to evaluate the attitudes of both, the British and the Boers, and to show why the Transvaal Boers mostly ignored the annexation declaration? This text is just an excursion into field which demands much wider and more detailed studies.
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
H. Barkly to Earl of Carnarvon, 25th Aug. 1876, Colonial Offi ce Records, National Archives, CO 48/479.
H. Barkly to Earl of Carnarvon, 6th March 1877, Carnarvon Papers, National Archives, PRO 30/6/32.
F. Blandy to J.A. Froude, 3rd Aug. 1876, Colonial Offi ce Records, National Archives, CO 48/481.
Brief Sketch of Boer Characteristics, 1st May 1878, Colonial Offi ce Records, National Archives, CO 291/1.
H. Bulwer to Earl of Carnarvon, 22nd Aug. 1876, Carnarvon Papers, National Archives, PRO 30/6/38.
H. Bulwer to Earl of Carnarvon, 10th Jan. 1877, Carnarvon Papers, National Archives, PRO 30/6/38.
H. Bulwer to Earl of Carnarvon, 19th Feb. 1877, Carnarvon Papers, National Archives, PRO 30/6/38.
W. Dely to W. Rawstorne, 31st March 1859, Colonial Offi ce Records, National Archives, CO 48/395.
Extract of a letter by W. Morcom, n.d. , Carnarvon Papers, National Archives, PRO 30/6/38.
D. Fraser and 49 others to Th. Shepstone, 12th Dec. 1876, Carnarvon Papers, National Archives, PRO 30/6/38.
J.G. Kotze to G. Grey, 19th Aug. 1855, Dominions Offi ce Records, National Archives, DO 119/2.
O. Lanyon to G. Wolseley, 7th Aug. 1879, Colonial Offi ce Records, National Archives, CO 291/3.
Memorandum on the Native Question in South Africa, 14th Dec. 1875, Colonial Offi ce Records, National Archives, CO 879/9.
R. Moffat to G. Grey, 4th Jan 1859, Colonial Offi ce Records, National Archives, CO 48/394.
F.H. Orpen to G.Grey, 28th Feb. 1857, Dominions Offi ce Records, National Archives, DO 119/3.
Report upon Law no. 6 of 1880, Colonial Offi ce Records, National Archives, CO 291/5.
Resolution by Transvaal Executive Council, 11th April 1877, Colonial Offi ce Records, National Archives, CO 48/482 D.6.
Th. Shepstone to H. Bulwer, 7th Feb. 1877, Carnarvon Papers, National Archives, PRO 30/6/38.
Th. Shepstone to Th. Burgers, c. 16th March 1877, Colonial Offi ce Records, National Archives, CO 48/482.
Th. Shepstone to B. Frere, 3rd Apr. 1877, Carnarvon Papers, National Archives, PRO 30/6/33.
A. Tidman to H. Marivale, 12th April 1859, Colonial Offi ce Records, National Archives, CO 48/399.
Treaty of Friendship and Commerce between South African Republic and His Majesty the King of Portugal, Dec. 1875, Foreign Offi ce Records, Natiomnal Archives, FO 93/77/38.
“Annexation of the Transvaal.” 16 April 1877. Supplement. The Cape Argus. 17 April 1877.
Aylward, A. 1881. The Transvaal of To-Day. War, Witchcraft, Sport, and Spoils in South Africa. Edinburg, London: William Blackwood and Sons.
Changuion, L., and B. Steenkamp. 2012. Disputed Land. The Historical Development of the South African Land Issue, 1652-2011. Pretoria: Protea Book House.
Correspondence Respecting the War between the Transvaal Republic and Neighbouring Native Tribes. British Parliamentary Papers. 1877. London: Harrison & Sons.
Davenport, T.R.H., and Ch. Saunders. 2000. South Africa. A Modern History. London: Macmillan Press Ltd.
Delius, P. 1983. The Land Belongs to Us. The Pedi Polity, the Boers and the British in the Nineteenth Century Transvaal. Johannesburg: Ravan Press.
_____. 1989. “The Ndzundza Ndebele. Indenture and the Making of Ethnic Identity, 1883-1914.” Holding Their Ground. Class, Locality and Culture in 19th and 20th Century South Africa. Eds. Ph. Bonner, I. Hofmeyr, J. Deborah, and T. Lodge. Johannesburg: Witwatersrand University Press/Ravan Press. 227-258.
Du Toit, A., H. Giliomee. 1983. Afrikaner Political Thought. Analysis and Documents. Vol. 1 (1780-1850). Berkeley/Los Angeles/London: University of California Press.
Etherington N., P. Harries, and B.K. Mbenga. 2010. “From Colonial Hegemonies to Imperial Conquests, 1840-1880.” The Cambridge History of South Africa. Vol. I. Eds. C. Hamilton, B.K. Mbenga, and R. Ross. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 319-391.
Eybers, G.W., ed. 1918. Select Constitutional Documents Illustrating South African History, 1795-1910. London: George Rutledge & Sons Ltd.
Goodfellow, C.F. 1966. Great Britain and South African Confederation, 1870-1881. Cape Town: Oxford University Press.
Haggard, H.R. 1900. A History of Transvaal. Toronto: George J. MacLeod. New York: New Amsterdam Book Company.
Hattersley, A.P. 1936. “The Annexation of Transvvaal, 1877”. History 21(81): 41-47.
Headlam, C. 1936. “The Failure of Confederation, 1871-1881.” The Cambridge History of British Empire. Vol. VIII. Eds. A.P. Newton, E.A. Beninans. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. 449-386.
Hovland, I. 2013. Mission Station Christianity. Norwegian Missionaries in Colonial Natal and Zululand, Southern Africa 1850-1890. Leiden: Brill.
Jaarsveld, F.A. van. 1961. The Awakening of Afrikaner Nationalism. Cape Town: Human & Rousseau.
Kiewet, C.W. de. 1965. The Imperial Factor in South Africa. A study in Politics and Economics. London: Frank Cass Publishers.
Kistner, W. 1952. “The Anti-slavery Agitation against the Transvaal Republic, 1852-1868.” Archives Yearbook for South Africa History 15(2): 197-278.
Laband, J. 2005. The Transvaal Rebellion. The First Boer War, 1880-1881. London: Pearson-Longman.
Leyds, W.J. 1906. The First Annexation of Transvaal. London: T. Fisher Unwin.
Mason, A. 1992. “The Hurutshe and the Formation of the Transvaal State, 1835-1875.” The International Journal of African Historical Studies 25(1): 85-98.
Merensky, D.A. 1899. Erinnerungen aus dem Missionleben in Transvaal, 1859-1882. Berlin: Buchhandlung der Berliner evangelischer Missiongesellschaft.
Moning, H.O. 1988. The Pedi. Pretoria: J.L. van Schaik.
Muller, C.P.J. ed. 1981. Five Hundred Years. A History of South Africa. Pretoria/CapeTown/Johannesburg: Academica.
Nixon, J. 1885. The Complete Story of the Transvaal. London: Sampson Low, Marston, Searle and Rivington.
Reitz, F.W., and J.Ch. Smuts. 1900. A Century of Wrong. London: ‘Review of Reviews’ Offi ce.
Robinson R., J. Gallaher, and A. Denny. 1967. Africa and Victorians. The Offi cial Mind of Imperialism. London: Macmillan;
Schreuder, D.M. 2009. The Scramble for Southern Africa, 1877-1895. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Theal, G.M. 1919. History of South Africa from 1873 to 1884. Twelve Eventful Years. London: George Allen & Unwin Ltd.
Thompson, L. 1971. “Great Britain and the Afrikaner Republics, 1870-1899.” The Oxford History of South Africa. Vol. II. Eds. Leonard Thompson, and Monica Wilson. Oxford: Oxford University Press. 289-324.
Wagner, R. 1980. “Zoutpansberg. The Dynamics of a Hunting Frontier, 1848-1867.” Economy and Society in Pre-Industrial South Africa. Eds. S. Marks, A. Atmore. London: Longman. 313-349.
War Office General Staff. 1905. The Native Tribes of the Transvaal. London: Harrison and Sons.