Histological Changes in Common Toad, Bufo Bufo (Anura, Bufonidae), Liver Tissue Under Conditions of Anthropogenically Transformed Ecosystems

N. M. Akulenko 1 , N. V. Dziubenko 1 , O. Yu. Marushchak 1 , O. D. Nekrasova 1 , and O. S. Oskyrko 1
  • 1 Schmalhausen Institute of Zoology, NAS of Ukraine, , 01030, Kyiv, Ukraine


In the article the histological changes in the liver of the common toad, Bufo bufo (Linnaeus, 1758), under conditions of moderate anthropogenic pollution (a vast park surrounded by urban areas) are examined. In the liver parenchyma, numerous changes characteristic of toxic damage were found: hepatocyte necrosis, fatty dystrophy, protein (and hydropic) dystrophy, signs of infl ammation. An analysis of the number of pigment inclusions in the liver shows hyperpigmentation in some specimens and hypopigmentation in others. The presence of hyperpigmentation indicates a moderate degree of damage and activation of compensation processes in animals. This is confirmed by a large population of common toads in this biotope. It is concluded that in anthropogenically modified biotopes some deterioration of animal health can be compensated by the absence of predators and the reduction of food competition.

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