Artificial Light at Night as a New Threat for Nature Conservation in Ukraine

M. Peregrym 1 , O. Vasyliuk 2 , and E. Pénzesné Kónya 1
  • 1 Eszterházy Károly University, , 3300, Eger, Hungary
  • 2 Schmalhausen Institute of Zoology, NAS of Ukraine, , 01030, Kyiv, Ukraine

Abstract

Human society benefits a lot from artificial light at night (ALAN), but in the same time it has led to a significant increase in light pollution of the night sky during the past decades. It has serious consequences on reproduction, navigation, foraging, habitat selection, communication, trophic and social interactions of the biota. Also widespread incursion of ALAN within protected areas has been evidenced for some countries, including the National Nature Parks (NNPs), Biosphere and Nature Reserves in the Steppe Zone and Crimea Mountains of Ukraine. However, the common situation with ALAN impact on protected areas within Ukraine is unclear yet. This research attempted to estimate the level of light pollution on the NNPs, Biosphere and Nature Reserves in the Forest, Forest-Steppe zones and Carpathian Mountains within Ukraine. Kmz layers of these protected areas and the New World Atlas of Artificial Sky Brightness, through Google Earth Pro, were used to calculate the level of artificial sky brightness for 33 NNPs, 2 Biosphere Reserves and 9 Nature Reserves. The results show that majority of studied protected areas are impacted by ALAN, but some of them stay almost under the dark sky still. The situation is unique for Europe, therefore these areas have the special value for biodiversity conservation and can be recognized as refugia where natural habitats are not influenced by ALAN. Based on obtained results, recommendations for improving of nature conservation management are given in the context of ALAN problem.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Barentine, J. 2016. Going for the Gold: Quantifying and Ranking Visual Night Sky Quality in International Dark Sky Places. International Journal of Sustainable Lighting, 18 (2), 9–15. https://doi.org/10.26607/ijsl.v18i0.16

  • Beier, P. 2006. Effects of artificial night lighting on terrestrial mammals. In: Rich, C., Longcore, T., eds. Ecological Consequences of Artificial Night Lighting. Island Press, Washington, DC, 15–42.

  • Bennie, J., Davies, T. W., Cruse, D., Gaston, K. J. 2016. Ecological effects of artificial light at night on wild plants. Journal of Ecology, 104, 611–620. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2745.12551

  • Bennie, J., Davies, T. W., Cruse, D., Inger, R., & Gaston, K. J. 2015 a. Cascading effects of artificial light at night: Resource-mediated control of herbivores in a grassland ecosystem. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 370, 20140131. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2014.0131

  • Bennie, J., Davies, T. W., Duffy, J. P., Inger, R., Gaston, K. J. 2015 b. Contrasting trends in light pollution across Europe based on satellite observed night time lights. Scientific Reports, 4, 3789. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep03789

  • Bennie, J., Duffy, J. P., Davies, T. W., Correa-Cano, M. E., & Gaston, K. J. 2015 c. Global trends in exposure to light pollution in natural terrestrial ecosystems. Remote Sensing, 7, 2715–2730. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs70302715

  • Brygynets, O. M. 2013. Problems of the institutions of the natural reserve fund. In: Materials for the Committee hearings in the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine ‘The Natural Reserve Fund of Ukraine: Problems and Solutions’: Implementation of the National Environmental Policy Strategy in the Field of NatureConservation: Evaluation of the Public. Center for Environmental Education and Information, Kyiv, 48–54.

  • Buchanan, B. W. 2006. Observed and potential effects of artificial night lighting on anuran amphibians. In: Rich, C., Longcore, T., eds. Ecological Consequences of Artificial Night Lighting. Island Press, Washington, DC, 192–220.

  • Cinzano, P., Falchi, F., Elvidge, C. D. 2001. The first World Atlas of the artificial night sky brightness. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society, 328 (3), 689–707. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-8711.2001.04882.x

  • Da Silva, A., Kempenaers, B. 2017. Singing from North to South: Latitudinal variation in timing of dawn singing under natural and artificial light conditions. Journal of Animal Ecology, 86 (6), 1286–1297. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2656.12739

  • Da Silva, A., Valcu, M., Kempenaers, B. 2015. Light pollution alters the phenology of dawn and dusk singing in common european songbirds. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 370, 20140126. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2014.0126

  • Davies, T. W., Bennie, J., Gaston, K. J. 2012. Street lighting changes the composition of invertebrate communities. Biology Letters, 8, 764–767. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2012.0216

  • Davies, T. W., Coleman, M., Griffith, K. M., Jenkins, S. R. 2015. Night-time lighting alters the composition of marine epifaunal communities. Biology Letters, 11, 20150080. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2015.0080

  • Degen, T., Mitesser, O., Perkin, E. K., Weiß, N. S., Oehlert, M., Mattig, E., Hölker, F. 2016. Street lighting: sex-independent impacts on moth movement. The Journal of Animal Ecology, 85 (5), 1352–1360. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2656.12540

  • Desouhant, E., Gomes, E., Mondy, N., Amat, I. 2019. Mechanistic, ecological, and evolutionary consequences of artificial light at night for insects: review and prospective. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata, 167 (1), 37–58. https://doi.org/10.1111/eea.12754

  • Dick, R. 2014. Applied scotobiology in luminaire design. In Lighting Research and Technology, 46 (1), 50–66. https://doi.org/10.1177/1477153513505758

  • Dick, R. 2018. Guidelines for Outdoor Lighting (Low-Impact Lighting) for RASC Dark-Sky Protection Programs (Dark-Sky Preserves, Nocturnal Preserves, Urban Star Parks). Retrieved 9 January 2019, from https://www.darksky.org/wp-content/uploads/bsk-pdf-manager/RASC-GOL_2018_51.pdf

  • Dominoni, D. M., Borniger, J. C., & Nelson, R. J. 2016. Light at night, clocks and health: from humans to wild organisms. Biology Letters, 12 (2), 20160015. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2016.0015

  • Dominoni, D. M., Quetting, M., Partecke, J. 2013) Long-term effects of chronic light pollution on seasonal functions of European blackbirds (Turdus merula). PLoS ONE, 8 (12), e85069. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085069

  • Eisenbeis, G. 2006. Artificial night lighting and insects: attraction of insects to streetlamps in a rural seting in Germany. In: Rich, C., Longcore, T., eds. Ecological consequences of artificial night lighting. Island Press, Washington, DC, 281–304.

  • Falchi, F., Cinzano, P., Duriscoe, D., Kyba, C. C. M., Elvidge, C. D., Baugh, K., … Furgoni, R. 2016. The new world atlas of artificial night sky brightness. Science Advances, 2 (6), e1600377. https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.1600377

  • Frank, K. D. 2006. Effects of artificial night lighting on moths. In: Rich, C., Longcore, T., eds. Ecological Consequences of Artificial Night Lighting. Island Press, Washington, DC, 389–412.

  • Gaston, K. J., & Bennie, J. 2014. Demographic effects of artificial nighttime lighting on animal populations. Environmental Reviews, 22 (4), 323–330. https://doi.org/10.1139/er-2014-0005

  • Gaston, K. J., Duffy, J. P., Bennie, J. 2015. Quantifying the erosion of natural darkness in the global protected area system. Conservation Biology, 29 (4), 1132–1141. https://doi.org/10.1111/cobi.12462

  • Gauthreux, S. A., Belser, C. G. 2006. Effects of artificial night lighting on migrating birds. In: Rich, C., Longcore, T., eds. Ecological Consequences of Artificial Night Lighting. Island Press, Washington, DC, 67–93.

  • Grubisic, M., van Grunsven, R. H. A., Kyba, C. C. M., Manfrin, A., Hölker, F. 2018. Insect declines and agroecosystems: does light pollution matter? Annals of Applied Biology, 173 (2), 180–189. https://doi.org/10.1111/aab.12440

  • Guetté, A., Godet, L., Juigner, M., Robin, M. 2018. Worldwide increase in Artificial Light At Night around protected areas and within biodiversity hotspots. Biological Conservation, 223, 97–103. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2018.04.018

  • Hallmann, C. A., Sorg, M., Jongejans, E., Siepel, H., Hofland, N., Schwan, H., … de Kroon, H. 2017. More than 75 percent decline over 27 years in total fl ying insect biomass in protected areas. PLOS ONE, 12 (10), e0185809. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0185809

  • Hearnshaw, J. 2012. A new Starlight Reserve for the central South Island of New Zealand. Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union, 10 (H16), 736. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1743921314013192

  • Hölker, F., Moss, T., Griefahn, B., Kloas, W., Voigt, C. C., Henckel, D., … Tockner, K. 2010 a. The dark side of light: A transdisciplinary research agenda for light pollution policy. Ecology and Society, 15 (4), 13. https://doi.org/10.5751/ES-03685-150413

  • Hölker, F., Wolter, C., Perkin, E. K., Tockner, K. 2010 b. Light pollution as a biodiversity threat. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 25 (12), 681–682. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2010.09.007

  • Hopkins, G. R., Gaston, K. J., Visser, M. E., Elgar, M. A., Jones, T. M. 2018. Artificial light at night as a driver of evolution across urban-rural landscapes. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 16 (8), 472–479. https://doi.org/10.1002/fee.1828

  • Jiang, W., He, G., Ni, Y. 2017. Assessment of light pollution impact on protected areas in China. ISPRS - International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences, XLII-2/ W7, P. 1307–1312. https://doi.org/10.5194/isprs-archives-XLII-2-W7-1307-2017

  • Kempenaers, B., Borgström, P., Loës, P., Schlicht, E., Valcu, M. 2010. Artificial night lighting affects dawn song, extra-pair siring success, and lay date in songbirds. Current Biology, 20 (19), 1735–1739. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2010.08.028

  • Leather, S. R. 2018. “Ecological Armageddon” — more evidence for the drastic decline in insect numbers. Annals of Applied Biology, 172 (1), 1–3. https://doi.org/10.1111/aab.12410

  • Longcore, T., Rich, C. 2004. Ecological light pollution. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment, 2 (4), 191–198. https://doi.org/10.1890/1540-9295(2004)002[0191:ELP]2.0.CO;2

  • Macgregor, C. J., Evans, D. M., Fox, R., Pocock, M. J. O. 2017. The dark side of street lighting: impacts on moths and evidence for the disruption of nocturnal pollen transport. Global Change Biology, 23 (2), 697–707. https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.13371

  • Macgregor, C. J., Pocock, M. J. O., Fox, R., Evans, D. M. 2015. Pollination by nocturnal Lepidoptera, and the effects of light pollution: A review. Ecological Entomology, 40 (3), 187–198. https://doi.org/10.1111/een.12174

  • Manfrin, A., Lehmann, D., van Grunsven, R. H. A., Larsen, S., Syväranta, J., Wharton, G., Hölker, F. 2018. Dietary changes in predators and scavengers in a nocturnally illuminated riparian ecosystem. Oikos, 127 (7). https://doi.org/10.1111/oik.04696

  • Montevecchi, W. A. 2006. Influences of artificial light on marine birds. In: Rich, C., Longcore, T., eds. Ecological Consequences of Artificial Night Lighting. Island Press, Washington, DC, 94–113.

  • Navara, K. J., Nelson, R. J. 2007. The dark side of light at night: Physiological, epidemiological, and ecological consequences. Journal of Pineal Research, 43 (3), 215–224. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-079X.2007.00473.x

  • Nightingale, B., Longcore, T. 2006. Artificial night lighting and fishes. In: Rich, C., Longcore, T., eds. Ecological Consequences of Artificial Night Lighting. Island Press, Washington, DC, 257–276.

  • Owens, A. C. S., Lewis, S. M. 2018. The impact of artificial light at night on nocturnal insects: A review and synthesis. Ecology and Evolution, 8 (22), 11337–11358 https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.4557

  • Peregrym, M., Pénzesné Kónya, E., Vasyliuk, O. 2018. The impact of artificial light at night (ALAN) on the National Nature Parks, Biosphere and Naturе Reserves of the Steppe Zone and Crimean Mountains within Ukraine. Palearctic Grasslands, 39, 8–14. https://doi.org/10.21570/EDGG.PG.39.8-14

  • Perkin, E. K., Hölker, F., Richardson, J. S., Sadler, J. P., Wolter, C., Tockner, K. 2011. The influence of artificial light on stream and riparian ecosystems: questions, challenges, and perspectives. Ecosphere, 2 (11), art122. https://doi.org/10.1890/ES11-00241.1

  • Perkin, E. K., Hölker, F., Tockner, K. 2014. The effects of artificial lighting on adult aquatic and terrestrial insects. Freshwater Biology, 59 (2), 368–377. https://doi.org/10.1111/fwb.12270

  • Perry, G., Buchanan, B., Fisher, R. 2008. Effects of artificial night lighting on amphibians and reptiles in urban environments. In: Jung, R. E., Mitchell, J. C. eds. Urban Herpetology. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles, Salt Lake, Utah, 239–256.

  • Raap, T., Pinxten, R., Eens, M. 2015. Light pollution disrupts sleep in free-living animals. Scientific Reports, 5, 13557. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep13557

  • Raap, T., Pinxten, R., Eens, M. 2016. Artificial light at night disrupts sleep in female great tits (Parus major) during the nestling period, and is followed by a sleep rebound. Environmental Pollution, 215, 125–134. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2016.04.100

  • Raap, T., Pinxten, R., Eens, M. 2018. Cavities shield birds from effects of artificial light at night on sleep. Journal of Experimental Zoology Part A: Ecological and Integrative Physiology, 329 (8–9), 449–456 https://doi.org/10.1002/jez.2174

  • Raap, T., Sun, J., Pinxten, R., Eens, M. 2017. Disruptive effects of light pollution on sleep in free-living birds: Season and/or light intensity-dependent? Behavioural Processes, 144, 13–19. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2017.08.011

  • Rich, C., Longcore, T., eds. 2006. Ecological Consequences of Artificial Night Lighting. Island Press, Washington, DC, 1–480.

  • Robert, K. A., Lesku, J. A., Partecke, J., Chambers, B. 2015. Artificial light at night desynchronizes strictly seasonal reproduction in a wild mammal. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences, 282, 20151745. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2015.1745

  • Rowse, E. G., Lewanzik, D., Stone, E. L., Harris, S., Jones, G. 2015. In: Voigt, C., Kingston, T., eds. Bats in the Anthropocene: Conservation of Bats in a Changing World. Springer International Publishing, Cham, Switzerland,187–213. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-25220-9_7

  • Rudenko, L. H., ed. 2007. National Atlas of Ukraine. DNVP Kartografiya, Kyiv,.1–440.

  • Sierro, A., Erhardt, A. 2019. Light pollution hampers recolonization of revitalised European Nightjar habitats in the Valais (Swiss Alps). Journal of Ornithology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10336-019-01659-6

  • Stone, E. L., Jones, G., Harris, S. 2012. Conserving energy at a cost to biodiversity? Impacts of LED lighting on bats. Global Change Biology, 18 (8), 2458–2465. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2012.02705.x

  • Stone, E. L., Harris, S., Jones, G. 2015. Impacts of artificial lighting on bats: A review of challenges and solutions. Mammalian Biology, 80 (3), 213–219. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mambio.2015.02.004

  • Touzot, M., Teulier, L., Lengagne, T., Secondi, J., Théry, M., Libourel, P.-A., … Mondy, N. 2019. Artificial light at night disturbs the activity and energy allocation of the common toad during the breeding period. Conservation Physiology, 7 (1), 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1093/conphys/coz002

  • van Geffen, K. G., Groot, A. T., van Grunsven, R. H. A., Donners, M., Berendse, F., Veenendaal, E. M. 2015 a. Artificial night lighting disrupts sex pheromone in a noctuid moth. Ecological Entomology, 40 (4), 401–408. https://doi.org/10.1111/een.12202

  • van Geffen, K. G., van Eck, E., de Boer, R. A., van Grunsven, R. H. A., Salis, L., Berendse, F., Veenendaal, E. M. 2015 b. Artificial light at night inhibits mating in a Geometrid moth. Insect Conservation and Diversity, 8 (3), 282–287. https://doi.org/10.1111/icad.12116

  • van Geffen, K. G., van Grunsven, R. H. A., van Ruijven, J., Berendse, F., Veenendaal, E. M. 2014. Artificial light at night causes diapause inhibition and sex-specific life history changes in a moth. Ecology and Evolution, 4 (11), 2082–2089. https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.1090

  • van Grunsven, R. H. A., Jähnichen, D., Grubisic, M., & Hölker, F. 2018. Slugs (Arionidae) benefit from nocturnal artificial illumination. Journal of Experimental Zoology Part A: Ecological and Integrative Physiology, 329 (8–9), 429–433. https://doi.org/10.1002/jez.2170

  • van Langevelde, F., Ettema, J. A., Donners, M., WallisDeVries, M. F., Groenendijk, D. 2011. Effect of spectral composition of artificial light on the attraction of moths. Biological Conservation, 144 (9), 2274–2281. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2011.06.004

  • van Langevelde, F., van Grunsven, R. H. A., Veenendaal, E. M., Fijen, T. P. M. 2017. Artificial night lighting inhibits feeding in moths. Biology Letters, 13 (3), 20160874. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2016.0874

  • Verovnik, R., Fišer, Ž., Zakšek, V. 2015. How to reduce the impact of artificial lighting on moths: A case study on cultural heritage sites in Slovenia. Journal for Nature Conservation, 28, 105–111. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnc.2015.09.002

  • Zapata, M. J., Sullivan, S. M. P., Gray, S. M. 2019. Artificial Lighting at Night in Estuaries — Implications from Individuals to Ecosystems. Estuaries and Coasts, 42 (2), 309–330. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12237-018-0479-3

OPEN ACCESS

Journal + Issues

Search