Artificial Light at Night as a New Threat for Nature Conservation in Ukraine

Open access

Abstract

Human society benefits a lot from artificial light at night (ALAN), but in the same time it has led to a significant increase in light pollution of the night sky during the past decades. It has serious consequences on reproduction, navigation, foraging, habitat selection, communication, trophic and social interactions of the biota. Also widespread incursion of ALAN within protected areas has been evidenced for some countries, including the National Nature Parks (NNPs), Biosphere and Nature Reserves in the Steppe Zone and Crimea Mountains of Ukraine. However, the common situation with ALAN impact on protected areas within Ukraine is unclear yet. This research attempted to estimate the level of light pollution on the NNPs, Biosphere and Nature Reserves in the Forest, Forest-Steppe zones and Carpathian Mountains within Ukraine. Kmz layers of these protected areas and the New World Atlas of Artificial Sky Brightness, through Google Earth Pro, were used to calculate the level of artificial sky brightness for 33 NNPs, 2 Biosphere Reserves and 9 Nature Reserves. The results show that majority of studied protected areas are impacted by ALAN, but some of them stay almost under the dark sky still. The situation is unique for Europe, therefore these areas have the special value for biodiversity conservation and can be recognized as refugia where natural habitats are not influenced by ALAN. Based on obtained results, recommendations for improving of nature conservation management are given in the context of ALAN problem.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Barentine J. 2016. Going for the Gold: Quantifying and Ranking Visual Night Sky Quality in International Dark Sky Places. International Journal of Sustainable Lighting18 (2) 9–15. https://doi.org/10.26607/ijsl.v18i0.16

  • Beier P. 2006. Effects of artificial night lighting on terrestrial mammals. In: Rich C. Longcore T. eds. Ecological Consequences of Artificial Night Lighting. Island Press Washington DC 15–42.

  • Bennie J. Davies T. W. Cruse D. Gaston K. J. 2016. Ecological effects of artificial light at night on wild plants. Journal of Ecology104 611–620. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2745.12551

  • Bennie J. Davies T. W. Cruse D. Inger R. & Gaston K. J. 2015 a. Cascading effects of artificial light at night: Resource-mediated control of herbivores in a grassland ecosystem. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences370 20140131. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2014.0131

  • Bennie J. Davies T. W. Duffy J. P. Inger R. Gaston K. J. 2015 b. Contrasting trends in light pollution across Europe based on satellite observed night time lights. Scientific Reports4 3789. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep03789

  • Bennie J. Duffy J. P. Davies T. W. Correa-Cano M. E. & Gaston K. J. 2015 c. Global trends in exposure to light pollution in natural terrestrial ecosystems. Remote Sensing7 2715–2730. https://doi.org/10.3390/rs70302715

  • Brygynets O. M. 2013. Problems of the institutions of the natural reserve fund. In: Materials for the Committee hearings in the Verkhovna Rada of Ukraine ‘The Natural Reserve Fund of Ukraine: Problems and Solutions’: Implementation of the National Environmental Policy Strategy in the Field of NatureConservation: Evaluation of the Public. Center for Environmental Education and Information Kyiv 48–54.

  • Buchanan B. W. 2006. Observed and potential effects of artificial night lighting on anuran amphibians. In: Rich C. Longcore T. eds. Ecological Consequences of Artificial Night Lighting. Island Press Washington DC 192–220.

  • Cinzano P. Falchi F. Elvidge C. D. 2001. The first World Atlas of the artificial night sky brightness. Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society328 (3) 689–707. https://doi.org/10.1046/j.1365-8711.2001.04882.x

  • Da Silva A. Kempenaers B. 2017. Singing from North to South: Latitudinal variation in timing of dawn singing under natural and artificial light conditions. Journal of Animal Ecology86 (6) 1286–1297. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2656.12739

  • Da Silva A. Valcu M. Kempenaers B. 2015. Light pollution alters the phenology of dawn and dusk singing in common european songbirds. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences370 20140126. https://doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2014.0126

  • Davies T. W. Bennie J. Gaston K. J. 2012. Street lighting changes the composition of invertebrate communities. Biology Letters8 764–767. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2012.0216

  • Davies T. W. Coleman M. Griffith K. M. Jenkins S. R. 2015. Night-time lighting alters the composition of marine epifaunal communities. Biology Letters11 20150080. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2015.0080

  • Degen T. Mitesser O. Perkin E. K. Weiß N. S. Oehlert M. Mattig E. Hölker F. 2016. Street lighting: sex-independent impacts on moth movement. The Journal of Animal Ecology85 (5) 1352–1360. https://doi.org/10.1111/1365-2656.12540

  • Desouhant E. Gomes E. Mondy N. Amat I. 2019. Mechanistic ecological and evolutionary consequences of artificial light at night for insects: review and prospective. Entomologia Experimentalis et Applicata167 (1) 37–58. https://doi.org/10.1111/eea.12754

  • Dick R. 2014. Applied scotobiology in luminaire design. In Lighting Research and Technology46 (1) 50–66. https://doi.org/10.1177/1477153513505758

  • Dick R. 2018. Guidelines for Outdoor Lighting (Low-Impact Lighting) for RASC Dark-Sky Protection Programs (Dark-Sky Preserves Nocturnal Preserves Urban Star Parks). Retrieved 9 January 2019 from https://www.darksky.org/wp-content/uploads/bsk-pdf-manager/RASC-GOL_2018_51.pdf

  • Dominoni D. M. Borniger J. C. & Nelson R. J. 2016. Light at night clocks and health: from humans to wild organisms. Biology Letters12 (2) 20160015. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2016.0015

  • Dominoni D. M. Quetting M. Partecke J. 2013) Long-term effects of chronic light pollution on seasonal functions of European blackbirds (Turdus merula). PLoS ONE8 (12) e85069. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0085069

  • Eisenbeis G. 2006. Artificial night lighting and insects: attraction of insects to streetlamps in a rural seting in Germany. In: Rich C. Longcore T. eds. Ecological consequences of artificial night lighting. Island Press Washington DC 281–304.

  • Falchi F. Cinzano P. Duriscoe D. Kyba C. C. M. Elvidge C. D. Baugh K. … Furgoni R. 2016. The new world atlas of artificial night sky brightness. Science Advances2 (6) e1600377. https://doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.1600377

  • Frank K. D. 2006. Effects of artificial night lighting on moths. In: Rich C. Longcore T. eds. Ecological Consequences of Artificial Night Lighting. Island Press Washington DC 389–412.

  • Gaston K. J. & Bennie J. 2014. Demographic effects of artificial nighttime lighting on animal populations. Environmental Reviews22 (4) 323–330. https://doi.org/10.1139/er-2014-0005

  • Gaston K. J. Duffy J. P. Bennie J. 2015. Quantifying the erosion of natural darkness in the global protected area system. Conservation Biology29 (4) 1132–1141. https://doi.org/10.1111/cobi.12462

  • Gauthreux S. A. Belser C. G. 2006. Effects of artificial night lighting on migrating birds. In: Rich C. Longcore T. eds. Ecological Consequences of Artificial Night Lighting. Island Press Washington DC 67–93.

  • Grubisic M. van Grunsven R. H. A. Kyba C. C. M. Manfrin A. Hölker F. 2018. Insect declines and agroecosystems: does light pollution matter? Annals of Applied Biology173 (2) 180–189. https://doi.org/10.1111/aab.12440

  • Guetté A. Godet L. Juigner M. Robin M. 2018. Worldwide increase in Artificial Light At Night around protected areas and within biodiversity hotspots. Biological Conservation223 97–103. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2018.04.018

  • Hallmann C. A. Sorg M. Jongejans E. Siepel H. Hofland N. Schwan H. … de Kroon H. 2017. More than 75 percent decline over 27 years in total fl ying insect biomass in protected areas. PLOS ONE12 (10) e0185809. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pone.0185809

  • Hearnshaw J. 2012. A new Starlight Reserve for the central South Island of New Zealand. Proceedings of the International Astronomical Union10 (H16) 736. https://doi.org/10.1017/S1743921314013192

  • Hölker F. Moss T. Griefahn B. Kloas W. Voigt C. C. Henckel D. … Tockner K. 2010 a. The dark side of light: A transdisciplinary research agenda for light pollution policy. Ecology and Society15 (4) 13. https://doi.org/10.5751/ES-03685-150413

  • Hölker F. Wolter C. Perkin E. K. Tockner K. 2010 b. Light pollution as a biodiversity threat. Trends in Ecology and Evolution25 (12) 681–682. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.tree.2010.09.007

  • Hopkins G. R. Gaston K. J. Visser M. E. Elgar M. A. Jones T. M. 2018. Artificial light at night as a driver of evolution across urban-rural landscapes. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment16 (8) 472–479. https://doi.org/10.1002/fee.1828

  • Jiang W. He G. Ni Y. 2017. Assessment of light pollution impact on protected areas in China. ISPRS - International Archives of the Photogrammetry Remote Sensing and Spatial Information SciencesXLII-2/ W7 P. 1307–1312. https://doi.org/10.5194/isprs-archives-XLII-2-W7-1307-2017

  • Kempenaers B. Borgström P. Loës P. Schlicht E. Valcu M. 2010. Artificial night lighting affects dawn song extra-pair siring success and lay date in songbirds. Current Biology20 (19) 1735–1739. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.cub.2010.08.028

  • Leather S. R. 2018. “Ecological Armageddon” — more evidence for the drastic decline in insect numbers. Annals of Applied Biology172 (1) 1–3. https://doi.org/10.1111/aab.12410

  • Longcore T. Rich C. 2004. Ecological light pollution. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment2 (4) 191–198. https://doi.org/10.1890/1540-9295(2004)002[0191:ELP]2.0.CO;2

  • Macgregor C. J. Evans D. M. Fox R. Pocock M. J. O. 2017. The dark side of street lighting: impacts on moths and evidence for the disruption of nocturnal pollen transport. Global Change Biology23 (2) 697–707. https://doi.org/10.1111/gcb.13371

  • Macgregor C. J. Pocock M. J. O. Fox R. Evans D. M. 2015. Pollination by nocturnal Lepidoptera and the effects of light pollution: A review. Ecological Entomology40 (3) 187–198. https://doi.org/10.1111/een.12174

  • Manfrin A. Lehmann D. van Grunsven R. H. A. Larsen S. Syväranta J. Wharton G. Hölker F. 2018. Dietary changes in predators and scavengers in a nocturnally illuminated riparian ecosystem. Oikos127 (7). https://doi.org/10.1111/oik.04696

  • Montevecchi W. A. 2006. Influences of artificial light on marine birds. In: Rich C. Longcore T. eds. Ecological Consequences of Artificial Night Lighting. Island Press Washington DC 94–113.

  • Navara K. J. Nelson R. J. 2007. The dark side of light at night: Physiological epidemiological and ecological consequences. Journal of Pineal Research43 (3) 215–224. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1600-079X.2007.00473.x

  • Nightingale B. Longcore T. 2006. Artificial night lighting and fishes. In: Rich C. Longcore T. eds. Ecological Consequences of Artificial Night Lighting. Island Press Washington DC 257–276.

  • Owens A. C. S. Lewis S. M. 2018. The impact of artificial light at night on nocturnal insects: A review and synthesis. Ecology and Evolution8 (22) 11337–11358 https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.4557

  • Peregrym M. Pénzesné Kónya E. Vasyliuk O. 2018. The impact of artificial light at night (ALAN) on the National Nature Parks Biosphere and Naturе Reserves of the Steppe Zone and Crimean Mountains within Ukraine. Palearctic Grasslands39 8–14. https://doi.org/10.21570/EDGG.PG.39.8-14

  • Perkin E. K. Hölker F. Richardson J. S. Sadler J. P. Wolter C. Tockner K. 2011. The influence of artificial light on stream and riparian ecosystems: questions challenges and perspectives. Ecosphere2 (11) art122. https://doi.org/10.1890/ES11-00241.1

  • Perkin E. K. Hölker F. Tockner K. 2014. The effects of artificial lighting on adult aquatic and terrestrial insects. Freshwater Biology59 (2) 368–377. https://doi.org/10.1111/fwb.12270

  • Perry G. Buchanan B. Fisher R. 2008. Effects of artificial night lighting on amphibians and reptiles in urban environments. In: Jung R. E. Mitchell J. C. eds. Urban Herpetology. Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles Salt Lake Utah 239–256.

  • Raap T. Pinxten R. Eens M. 2015. Light pollution disrupts sleep in free-living animals. Scientific Reports5 13557. https://doi.org/10.1038/srep13557

  • Raap T. Pinxten R. Eens M. 2016. Artificial light at night disrupts sleep in female great tits (Parus major) during the nestling period and is followed by a sleep rebound. Environmental Pollution215 125–134. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2016.04.100

  • Raap T. Pinxten R. Eens M. 2018. Cavities shield birds from effects of artificial light at night on sleep. Journal of Experimental Zoology Part A: Ecological and Integrative Physiology329 (8–9) 449–456 https://doi.org/10.1002/jez.2174

  • Raap T. Sun J. Pinxten R. Eens M. 2017. Disruptive effects of light pollution on sleep in free-living birds: Season and/or light intensity-dependent? Behavioural Processes144 13–19. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.beproc.2017.08.011

  • Rich C. Longcore T. eds. 2006. Ecological Consequences of Artificial Night Lighting. Island Press Washington DC 1–480.

  • Robert K. A. Lesku J. A. Partecke J. Chambers B. 2015. Artificial light at night desynchronizes strictly seasonal reproduction in a wild mammal. Proceedings of the Royal Society B: Biological Sciences282 20151745. https://doi.org/10.1098/rspb.2015.1745

  • Rowse E. G. Lewanzik D. Stone E. L. Harris S. Jones G. 2015. In: Voigt C. Kingston T. eds. Bats in the Anthropocene: Conservation of Bats in a Changing World. Springer International Publishing Cham Switzerland187–213. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-25220-9_7

  • Rudenko L. H. ed. 2007. National Atlas of Ukraine. DNVP Kartografiya Kyiv.1–440.

  • Sierro A. Erhardt A. 2019. Light pollution hampers recolonization of revitalised European Nightjar habitats in the Valais (Swiss Alps). Journal of Ornithology. https://doi.org/10.1007/s10336-019-01659-6

  • Stone E. L. Jones G. Harris S. 2012. Conserving energy at a cost to biodiversity? Impacts of LED lighting on bats. Global Change Biology18 (8) 2458–2465. https://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2486.2012.02705.x

  • Stone E. L. Harris S. Jones G. 2015. Impacts of artificial lighting on bats: A review of challenges and solutions. Mammalian Biology80 (3) 213–219. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.mambio.2015.02.004

  • Touzot M. Teulier L. Lengagne T. Secondi J. Théry M. Libourel P.-A. … Mondy N. 2019. Artificial light at night disturbs the activity and energy allocation of the common toad during the breeding period. Conservation Physiology7 (1) 1–9. https://doi.org/10.1093/conphys/coz002

  • van Geffen K. G. Groot A. T. van Grunsven R. H. A. Donners M. Berendse F. Veenendaal E. M. 2015 a. Artificial night lighting disrupts sex pheromone in a noctuid moth. Ecological Entomology40 (4) 401–408. https://doi.org/10.1111/een.12202

  • van Geffen K. G. van Eck E. de Boer R. A. van Grunsven R. H. A. Salis L. Berendse F. Veenendaal E. M. 2015 b. Artificial light at night inhibits mating in a Geometrid moth. Insect Conservation and Diversity8 (3) 282–287. https://doi.org/10.1111/icad.12116

  • van Geffen K. G. van Grunsven R. H. A. van Ruijven J. Berendse F. Veenendaal E. M. 2014. Artificial light at night causes diapause inhibition and sex-specific life history changes in a moth. Ecology and Evolution4 (11) 2082–2089. https://doi.org/10.1002/ece3.1090

  • van Grunsven R. H. A. Jähnichen D. Grubisic M. & Hölker F. 2018. Slugs (Arionidae) benefit from nocturnal artificial illumination. Journal of Experimental Zoology Part A: Ecological and Integrative Physiology329 (8–9) 429–433. https://doi.org/10.1002/jez.2170

  • van Langevelde F. Ettema J. A. Donners M. WallisDeVries M. F. Groenendijk D. 2011. Effect of spectral composition of artificial light on the attraction of moths. Biological Conservation144 (9) 2274–2281. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.biocon.2011.06.004

  • van Langevelde F. van Grunsven R. H. A. Veenendaal E. M. Fijen T. P. M. 2017. Artificial night lighting inhibits feeding in moths. Biology Letters13 (3) 20160874. https://doi.org/10.1098/rsbl.2016.0874

  • Verovnik R. Fišer Ž. Zakšek V. 2015. How to reduce the impact of artificial lighting on moths: A case study on cultural heritage sites in Slovenia. Journal for Nature Conservation28 105–111. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jnc.2015.09.002

  • Zapata M. J. Sullivan S. M. P. Gray S. M. 2019. Artificial Lighting at Night in Estuaries — Implications from Individuals to Ecosystems. Estuaries and Coasts42 (2) 309–330. https://doi.org/10.1007/s12237-018-0479-3

Search
Journal information
Impact Factor


Cite Score 2018: 0.41

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.324
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.422

Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 213 212 212
PDF Downloads 200 200 200