Formation Factors of Cytogenetic Violation of Rutilus rutilus (Cypriniformes, Cyprinidae) in Transformed River Ecosystems

M. O. Klymenko 1 , O. O. Biedunkova 1 , O. M. Klymenko 1 , A. M. Pryshchepa 1 , I. I. Statnik 1 , and N. S. Kovalchuk 1
  • 1 National University of Water Management and Nature Resources Use, , 33028, Ukraine


For the first time, an analysis of structural damage of the peripheral blood erythrocyte nucleus in Rutilus rutilus (Linnaeus, 1758) was carried out for the rivers of the north-western region of Ukraine. The effect of the hydrochemical regime on the formation of cytogenetic disturbances of the representatives of this species was also clarified. It was observed that during 2013–2017, the content of phosphates, suspended solids, fluorides, iron, copper, zinc, manganese, nitrite nitrogen and nitrate nitrogen in the surface waters of rivers most significantly exceeded the current quality standards. The average frequency of nuclear disorders of peripheral blood erythrocytes R. rutilus from the studied hydrosystems is 5.25 ± 0.29 ‰ (p < 0.01), with a noticeable excess of the level of spontaneous mutations in the older age groups of fish. In all analyzed samples of R. rutilus, among the total number of identified structural disorders of the nucleus, the largest share is made up of red blood cells from the micronucleus (from 40.0 to 62.0 %), which is evidence of cytogenetic disturbances in the body of fish. At the same time, disturbances of erythrocyte blood of roach from small rivers are on average 1.3 times (or 21.9 %) higher compared with individuals from medium-sized rivers. The formation of cytogenetic disturbances in R. rutilus under the conditions of the hydrochemical regime of rivers is described by a close (r = 0.99 at p < 0.003) multifactorial regression dependence. More important regressive coefficients of the dependency are acquired by such biogenes (NH4+, NO3−, PO4−) and toxicants (Cu2+, Zu2+, Mn2+, F2) in the background of oxygen regime peculiarities (COD, BOD5, O2).

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Ajvazjan, S. A. 1985. Applied Statistics. Finance and Statistics. Moskow, 1–487 [In Russian].

  • Bacolod, E. T., Uno, S., Villamor, S. S., Koyama, J. 2017. Oxidative stress and genotoxicity biomarker responses in tilapia (Oreochromisniloticus) exposed to environmental concentration of 1-nitropyrene. Mar. Pollut. Bull., 124 (2), 786–791.

  • Baršienė, J., Rybakovas, A., Lang, T., Andreikėnaitė, L., Michailovas, A. 2013. Environmental genotoxicity and cytotoxicity levels in fish from the North Sea offshore region and Atlantic coastal waters. Mar. Poll., 68 (1–2), 106–116.

  • Bilal, H.,Tayyaba, S., Salma, S., Shahreef, M. M., Zubair A., Shahid, M. 2018. Fish eco-genotoxicology: Comet and micronucleus assay in fish erythrocytes as in situ biomarker of freshwater pollution. Saudi journal of biological sciences, 25 (2), 393–398.

  • Gorovaja, A. I., Skvorcova, T. V., Pavlichenko, A. V., Lisickaja, S. M. 2011. Monitoring control of the state of aquatic ecosystems based on cytogenetic methods. At: [In Ukrainian].

  • Grant, K. R. 2015. Fish hematology and associated disorders. The veterinary clinics of North America. Exotic animal practice, 18, 83–103.

  • Il´inskih, N. N. 1988. Using the micronucleus test in screening and monitoring of mutagens using the micronucleus test in screening and monitoring of mutagens. Cytology and Genetics, 22, 67–71 [In Russian].

  • Klimenko, M., Biedunkova, O. 2016. Development Stability and Cytogenetic Homeostasis of Perca fluviatilis in the Rivers of Rivne Oblast. Vestnik Zoologii, 50 (6), 539–546.

  • Krysanov, E. Ju. 1987. Aneuploidy and chromosomal mosaicism in fish (for example, representatives of Cyprinidontidae and Synbranchidae). Ph.D thesis, A. N. Severtsov Institute of Evolutionary Morphology and Animal Ecology, USSR Moscow, 1–20 [In Russian].

  • L´juis, S. M., Bjejn, B., Bjejts, I. 2009. Practical and laboratory hematology. GEOTAR-Media, Moscow, 1–672 [In Russian].

  • Obiakor M. O., Okonkwo J. C., Ezeonyejiaku, C. D. 2014. Genotoxicity of freshwater ecosystem shows DNA damage in preponderant fish as validated by in vivo micronucleus induction in gill and kidney erythrocytes. Mutat. Res. Genet. Toxicol. Environ. Mutagen., 775776, 20–30.

  • Omar, W.A., Zaghloul, K. H., Abdel-Khalek, A. A., Abo-Hegab, S. 2012. Genotoxic effects of metal pollution in two fish species, Oreochromis niloticus and Mugil cephalus, from highly degraded aquatic habitats. Mutation research, 746 (1), 7–14.

  • Sopinka, N. M., Donaldson, M. R., O´Connor, C. M., Suski, C. D., Cooke, S. J. 2016. Stress Indicators in Fish. Fish Physiology, 35, 405–462.

  • Talapatra, S. N., Banerjee, S. K. 2007. Detection of micronucleus and abnormal nucleus in erythrocytes from the gill and kidney of Labe bata cultivated in sewage-fed fish farms. Food Chem. Toxicol., 45 (2), 210–215.

  • Vergolyas, M. R., Vyeyalkina, N. M., Goncharuk, V. V. 2010. Influence of copper ions on hematological and cytogenetic indicators of freshwater fish Carassius auratus gibelio. Cytology and Genetics, 44 (2), 124–128 [In Ukrainian].


Journal + Issues