The analysis of present-day crucians’ settlements in water systems of Eastern Ukraine designated the predominance of the digeneous Goldfish, C. auratus, in the region, the number of which made 78.7 %, from the total number of the examined representatives of the genus. The second group consists of gynogenetic Prussian carps, C. gibelio (14.3 %); it is represented by the clone biotype and recombinant individuals. Crucian carp, C. carassius (3.6 %), turned out to be rare and its number did not exceed the number of the caught hybrids C. auratus × C. carassius (3.4 %). The retrospective analysis of literature data and museum collections gave an opportunity to describe the changes in species composition of the genus which took place during the last 150 years. Within this period the crucian carp, which used to be the single and most common representative of genus Carassius (Jarocki, 1822) in the region, became nearly an extinct species. In the meanwhile the representatives of the group of species of Prussian carps, C. auratus + C. gibelio, which appeared in the region in the late 1960s, rapidly increased their number and became the most numerous fish of the Eastern Ukraine. The discovered tendency is not unique for the researched region; in general it reflects the European tendency for the crucian species. The reasons for that are rivers’ regulation and destruction of bottomland ecosystems. The secondary factors for the elimination of C. carassius are the competitive relations of individuals representing both species and easy hybridization, during which the more numerous species C. auratus absorbs the rare C. carassius.
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
Abramenko, M. I., Kravchenko, O. V., Velikoivanenko, A. E. 1997. Population genetic structure of the goldfish Carassius auratus gibelio diploid-triploid complex from the Don River Basin. Journal of Ichthyology, 37, 1, 62–71 [In Russian].
Ambroz, A. I. 1956. Fish of the Dnipro, the Southern Bug and the Dnipro-Bug estuary. USSR Academy of Sciences, Kiev, 1–404 [In Russian].
Belling, D., Himmelreich, K. 1940. The fishes of Berdy and Obitichnaja rivers. Supplement. Academy of Sciences of the USSR. Kiev, 10, 3–6 [In Ukrainian].
Chernay, A. 1852. Fauna of the Kharkov province and the places adjacent to it. University Printing House, Kharkov, 1, 1–33 [In Russian].
Cherfas, N. B. 1966. Natural Triploidy in Female Single-Sex Prussian carp (Carassius auratus gibelio Bl.). Genetica, 2 (5), 16–24 [In Russian].
Demchenko, M. F. 1981. Some questions of the biology of Prussian carp in the Kremenchug reservoir. Fish industry (Kiev), 32, 43–47 [In Russian].
Demchenko, N. 2009. Dynamics of the ichthyofauna of the rivers of the northwestern Azov Sea in the XX century. Visnyk of Lviv University. The biological series, 50, 72–84 [In Ukrainian].
Denshchik, V. A. 1994. The current state of the fish fauna in the basin of the middle course of the Seversky Donets. Ph.D thesis, Kiev, 1–124 [In Russian].
Dowling, T. E. Demarais, B. D. 1993. Evolutionary significance of introgressive hybridization in cyprinid fishes. Nature,362, 444–446.
Fadeev, N. N. 1930. The results of the sanitary and biological examination of p. Donets and some of its associated reservoirs in the area of the station Rubezhnaya — Crossing South-Eastern railway. Proceedings of the Donetsk Scientific Expedition, Proletarian, Kharkiv, 1, 45–76.
Fitzpatrick, B. M. Shaffer, H. B. 2007. Hybrid vigor between native and introduced salamanders raises new challenges for conservation. PNAS.104, 15793–15798.
Golovinskaya, K. A., Romashov, D. D., Cherfas, N. B. 1965. Unisexual and Bisexual Forms in Goldfish (Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch), Vopr. Ichthyologii, 5, 4, 614–629 [In Russian].
Harris, H., Hopkinson, D. A. 1976. Handbook of enzyme electrophoresis in human genetics. North-Holland, Amsterdam, 1–257.
Hänfling, B., Bolton, P., Harley, M., Carvalho, G. R. 2005. A molecular approach to detect hybridization between crucian carp (Carassius carassius) and non-indigenous carp species (Carassius spp. and Cyprinus carpio). Freshwater Biol., 50 (3), 403–415.
Holcík, J. 2003. Changes in the fish fauna and fisheries in the Slovak section of the Danube River: a review. Ann. Limnol. Int. J. Lim., 39 (3), 177–195.
Holčík, J., Žitňan, R. 1978. On the expansion and origin of Carassius auratus in Czechoslovakia. Folia Zool., 27, 279-288.
Hubbs, C. L. 1955. Hybridization between fish species in nature. Syst. Biol., 4, 1–20.
Jakovlič, I., Gui, J.-F. 2011. Recent invasion and low level of divergence between diploid and triploid forms of Carassius auratus complex in Croatia. Genetica, 139 (6), 789–804.
Kessler, K. F. 1877. Fishes living and found in the Aral-Caspian-Pontic ichthyological region. Proceedings of the Aral-Caspian Expedition, No. 4, Appendix to the works of the St. Petersburg Society of Naturalists, Type. M. Stasyulevicha, S-Pb., 246–247 [In Russian].
Kokodiy, S. V. 2010. Natural hybridization of crucian carp with Prussian carp in the Dnipro basin. Ph.D thesis, Kiev, 1–24 [In Russian].
Korotkiy, I. I., Kharitonova, N. I. 1958. The natural state of the fisheries of the Seversky Donets River and the prospects for its development. Proceedings of the Research Institute of Fisheries UASKhN, 11, 231–250 [In Russian].
Kottelat, M., Freyhof, J. 2007. Handbook of European freshwater fishes. Chester, 1–646.
Kobayashi, H., K. Nakano, M. 1977. Nakamura On the hybrids, 4n ginbuna (Carassius auratus langsdorfii) × kinbuna C. auratus subsp.), and their chromosomes. Bull. Japan Soc. Sci. Fisheries, 43, 31–37.
Lin, S. M., Sezaki, K., Hashimoto, K., Nakamura, M. 1980. Distribution of polyploids of “ginbuna” Carassius auratus langsdorfii in Japan. Bull. Jap. Soc. Sci. Fish, 46 (4), 413–418.
Lusk, M. R., Luskova, V., Hanel, L. 2010. Alien fish species in the Czech Republic and their impact on the native fish fauna. Folia Zoologica, 59, 57–72.
Maslovsky, A. D. 1940. Materials for the study of the crucian of the lakes of the river Donets. Proceedings of the Donetsk hydrobiological station. Publishing House of the HDU, Kharkov, 1, 145–164 [In Russian].
Metcalf, J. L., Siegel, H. R., Martin, A. P. 2008. Hybridization dynamics between Colorado’s native cutthroat trout and introduced rainbow trout. J. Hered, 99 (2), 149–156.
Mezhzherin, S. V., Garbar, A. V., Vlasenko, P. P. et al. 2018. The evolutionary paradox of pertenogenetic earthworms. Naukova Dumka, Kyiv, 1–232 [In Russian].
Mezhzherin, S. V., Kokodiy, S. V. 2007. Diploid-polyploid complex of C. auratus - carassius of cyprinid fishes (Cyprinidae) in the fauna of Ukraine. Dopovіdі NANU, 12, 162–166 [In Russian].
Mezhzherin, S. V., Kokodiy, S. V. 2009. Morphological variability and differentiation of bisexual Goldfish (Carassius auratus L. 1758) and same-sex Prussian carp (C. gibelio Bloch 1782) carp in Ukrainian reservoirs. Vestnik Zoology, 43 (1), 39–50 [In Russian].
Mezhzherin, S. V., Kokodiy, S. V. 2010. The genetic structure of the settlements of Prussian carp Carassius (superspecies auratus) (Linnaeus, 1758) of the Middle Dnieper basin. Genetica, 46 (6), 817–824 [In Russian].
Mezhzherin, S. V., Kokodiy, S. V., Kulish, A. V., Verlaty, D. B., Fedorenko L.V. 2012. Hybridization of Crucian carp (Carassius carassius (Linnaeus, 1758)) in Ukrainian Water Bodies and the Genetic Structure of Hybrids. Cytology and genetics, 46 (1), 37–46.
Mezhzherin, S. V., Kokodiy, S. V., Pukhtaevitch, P. P., Kulish, A. V. 2017. Peculuarities of population structure and hybridization of Carassius Jarocki, 1822 in Polyssia (Northern Ukraine). Vestnik Zoologii,51 (2), 167–174.
Mezhzherin, S. V., Lisetsky, I. L. 2004. Natural hybridization of Goldfish (Carassius auratus) and Crucian carp (C. carassius): an evolutionary phenomenon or the absorption of one species by another? Dopovіdі NAS of Ukraine, 9, 162–166 [In Russian].
Mezhzherin, S. V., Kokodiy, S. V., Kulish, A. V., Puhtaevich, P. P. 2015. The bipolarity of the genetic structure of the common beetle (Carassius Linnaeus, 1758) as a reflection of paradoxical reproductive relationships. Cytology and genetics,49 (42), 66–71.
Mezhzherin, S. V. 2008. Animal Resources of Ukraine in the Light of the Strategy of Sustainable Development: An Analytical Reference Book, Logos, Kiev, 1–282 [In Russian].
Movchan, Y. V. 2005. To the characterization of the diversity of the ichthyofauna of freshwater reservoirs in Ukraine (taxonomic composition, distribution along river basins, the present state). Collection of works of the Zoological Museum, 37, 70–82 [In Ukrainian].
Movchan, Y. V., Smirnov, A. I. 1983. Carp. Part. 2. Fauna of Ukraine. Naukova Dumka, Kiev, Vol. 8, Fishes, 2, 1–360 [In Russian].
Muhlfeld, C. C., Kovach, R. P., Jones, L. A., Al-Chokhachy, R., Boyer, M. C., Leary, R. F., Lowe, W. H., Luikart, G.. Allendorf, F. W. 2014. Invasive hybridization in a threatened species is accelerated by climate change. Nature Climate Change, 4, 620–624.
Murakami, M, Matsuda, C, Fujitani, H. 2001. The maternal origins of the triploid ginbuna (Carassius auratus langsdorfii): phylogenetic relationships within the C. auratus taxa by partial mitochondrial D-loop sequencing. Genes Genet Syst., 76, 25–32, doi: 10.1266/ggs.76.25.
Nazarov, V. M. 1995. Ichthyofauna of the Seversky Donets River (in the area of the KSU biological station). Proceedings of the anniversary conference “Scientific research at the Seversk-Donetsk Biological Station” (Gaidary, October 24–25, 1994), Kharkov, 49–50 [In Russian].
Papoušek, I., Vetešnik, L., Halačka, K., Luskova, V., Humpl, M. Mendel, J. 2008. Identification of natural hybrids of gibel carp Carassius auratus gibelio (Bloch) and crucian carp Carassius carassius (L.) from lower Dyje River floodplain (Czech Republic). J. Fish Biol., 72, 1230–1235.
Peacock, F. C., Bunting, S. L., Queen, K. G. 1965. Serum protein electrophoresis in acrylamide gel patterns from normal human subjects. Science, 147, 1451–1455.
Qin, Q., Wang, J., Hu, M. et al. 2016. Autotriploid origin of Carassius auratus as revealed by chromosomal locus analysis. Science China Life Sciences, 59 (6), 622–626.
Rhymer, J. M., Simberloff, D. 1996. Extinction by hybridization and introgression. Annu. Rev. Ecol. Syst., 27, 83–109.
Sakhno, I. I. 1940. Materials for the study of the Donets River. Scientific Notes of the Kharkiv State Pedagogical Institute, 4, 89–95 [In Russian].
Sayer, C. D., Copp, G. H., Emson, D., Godard, M. J., Zięba, G., Wesley, K. J. 2011. Towards the conservation of crucian carp Carassius carassius: understanding the extent and causes of decline within part of its native English range. J. Fish Biol., 79 (6), 1608–1624.
Stöck, M., Ustinova, J., Betto-Colliard, C., Schartl, M., Moritz, C., Perrin, N. 2012. Simultaneous mendelian and clonal genome transmission in a sexually reproducing, all-triploid vertebrate. Proc. R. Soc. B., 279, 1293–1299.
Shcherbukha, A. Y. 2009. Crucian carp Carassius carassius (Linnaeus, 1758). The Red Book of Ukraine. Fauna. Kyiv, a kind of “Global consulting”, 1–334 [In Ukrainian].
Scribner, K. T., Page, K. S., Bartron, M. L. 2000. Hybridization in freshwater fishes: a review of case studies and cytonuclear methods of biological inference. Rev. Fish. Biol. Fisher., 10, 293–323.
Shandikov, G. A., Goncharov, G. L. 2008. Rare species of the fish of the Seversky Donets Basin of the North-East of Ukraine. Bulletin of the Kharkiv National University named after VN Karazin Ser. Biology, 8, № 828, 65–90 [In Russian].
Sezaki, K., Kobayashi, H., Nakamura, M. 1977. Size of erythrocytes in the diploid and triplod specimens of Carassius auratus langsdorfii. Jap. J. Ichthyol., 24 (2), 135–140.
Shimuzu, Y., Oshiro, Ò., Sakaizumi, M. 1993. Electrophoretic studies of diploid, triploid, and tetraploid forms of the Japanese silver crucian carp, Carassius auratus langsdorfii. Jap. J. Ichthyol., 40 (1), 65–75.
Simberloff, D. 1996. Hybridization between native and introduced wildlife species: importance for conservation. Wildlife Biol., 2 (3), 143–150.
Solodovnikov, S. V. 1929. To information about the fish of the Donets. Russian hydrobiological journal, 7 (7–8), 251–252.
Solodovnikov, S. V. 1930. Fish collected by the Donetsk Scientific Expedition. Proceedings of the Donetsk Scientific Expedition. Proletarian, Kharkiv, 1, 33–40.
Takada, M., Tachihara, K., Kon, T., Yamamoto, G., Iguchi, K., Miya, M., Nishida, M. 2010. Biogeography and evolution of the Carassius auratus-complex in East Asia. BMC Evolutionary Biology, 10:7. doi: 10.1186/1471-2148-10-7.
Tóth, B., Várakoni, E., Hidas, A., Meleg, E. E., Varadi, L. 2005. Genetic analysis of offspring from intra- and interspecific crosses of Carassius auratus gibelio by chromosome and RAPD analysis. J. Fish Biol., 66 (3), 784–797.
Troitsky, S. K. 1974. Ichthyofauna and fisheries importance of the lower course of the Seversky Donets. Issues of ichthyology, 14 (3), 415–423.
Vellend, M., Harmon, L. J., Lockword, J. L., Mayfield, M. M., Hughes, A. R., Wares, J. P., Sax, D. F. 2007. Effects of exotic species on evolutionary diversification. Trends. Ecol. Evol., 22 (9), 481–488.
Verspoor, E., Hammart, J. 1991. Introgressive hybridization in fishes: the biochemical evidence. J. Fish Biol., 39, 309–334.
Vrijenhoek, R. C. 1994. Unisexual fish: models for studying ecology and evolution. Ann. Rev. Ecol. Syst., 25, 71–96.
Yi, M. S., Li, Y. Q., Liu, J. D., Zhou, L., Yu, Q.X. Gui, J. F. 2003. Molecular cytogenetic detection of paternal chromosome fragments in allogynogenetic gibel carp, Carassius auratus gibelio Bloch. Chromosome Res., 11 (7), 665–671.