Pecular Features of Hematopoiesis in the Liver of Mature and Immature Green Frogs (Pelophylax Esculentus Complex)

N. M. Akulenko 1
  • 1 Schmalhausen Institute of Zoology, NAS of Ukraine, vul. B. Khmelnytskogo, 15, Kyiv, 01030, Ukraine


The article describes characteristic features of the hematopoiesis in mature and immature green frogs (Pelophylax esculentus complex). Quantitative differences in liver myelograms were insignificant. However, in a sample of mature animals numerous significant correlations between the number of pigment inclusions in the liver and indicators of erythropoiesis and myelopoiesis were observed. Those correlations were absent in the immature frogs. We concluded that aft er the frogs’ breeding a lack of plastic resources, in particular, hemosiderin remains up to the hibernation.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Akulenko, N. M. 1998. Seasonal dynamics of amount and functional activity of macrophages and the pigment cells in the liver of the lake frog. Vestnik Zoologii, 32 (4), 86-93 [In Russian].

  • Akulenko, N. M. 2009. Amphibians as indicators of human toxicity: opportunities and challenges of the method. Ekologicheskiy monitoring i bioraznoobraziye, 4 (1-2), 140-147 [In Russian].

  • Akulenko, N. M. 2010. Modifi cation of erythropoiesis in amphibians in anthropogenic landscapes. Proceedings of the symposium “The morphogenesis of organs and tissues beneath.the infl uence of exogenous factors” 7-9 October 2010, the Simferopol-Alushta. Simferopopol, 2010, 24-28 [In Russian].

  • Akulenko, N. M. 2011. Vascular bed as part of the hematopoietic system of anurans.Vestnik Zoologii, 45 (4), 359-366 [In Russian].

  • Akulenko, N. M. 2012. Haemopoietic system of the anurans: the role of bone marrow and liver. Vestnik Zoologii, 46 (4), 347-354.

  • Kuzmin, S. L. 1999. Amphibians of the former USSR. Association of scientifi c editions. KMK, Moscow, 1-298 [In Russian].

  • Smyslov, N. Y. 1980. Experimental study of the development of hematopoietic tissue in embryogenesis of grass frog Rana temporaria. Ph.D thesis. Moscow State University, 1-22 [In Russian].

  • Agius, C., Roberts, R. J. 2003. Melao-macrophage centres and their role in fi sh pathology. J Fish Diseases, 26 (9), 499-509.

  • Barni, S., Vaccarone, R., Bertone, V., Fraschini, A., Bernini, F., Fenoglio, C. 2002. Mechanisms of changes to the liver pigmentary component during the annual cycle (activity and hibernation) of Rana esculenta L. J Anat, 200 (2), 185-194.

  • Fenoglio, C., Boncompagni, E., Fasola, M., Gandini, C., Comizzoli, S., Milanesi, G., Barni, S. 2005. Eff ects of environmental pollution on the liver parenchymal cells and Kupff er-melanomacrophagic cells of the frog Rana esculenta. Ecotoxicol Environ Safety, 60 (3), 259-268.

  • Maniatis, G. M., Ingram, U. M. 1971. Erythropoiesis during amphibian metemorphosis. 1. Site of maturation of erythrocytes in Ranacatesbeiana. J Cell Biol, 49 (2), 372-379.

  • Meseguer, J., Lozano, M., Agulleiro, B. 1985. Ultrastructure of the renal granulopoietic tissue of the Rana ridibunda tadpole. J Submicrosc Cytol, 17 (3), 391-401.

  • Rollins-Smith, L. A., Hopkins, B. D., Reinert, L. K. 2004. An amphibian model to test the eff ects of xenobiotic chemicals on development of the hematopoietic system. Environ Toxicol Chem, 23 (12), 2863-2867.


Journal + Issues