Geometric Morphometric Study on Geographic Dimorphism of Coding Moth Cydia Pomonella (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) from North West of Iran

S. Khaghaninia 1 , S. Mohammadi 2 , A. Srafrazi 3 , K. Nejad 1  and R. Zahiri 4
  • 1 Department of Plant Protection, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz
  • 2 Department of Agronomy & Plant Breeding, Faculty of Agriculture, University of Tabriz
  • 3 Institute of Plant Pests & Diseases Research, Tehran, Iran
  • 4 Department of Biology, University of Turku, Finland

Geometric Morphometric Study on Geographic Dimorphism of Coding Moth Cydia Pomonella (Lepidoptera, Tortricidae) from North West of Iran

During years 2003-2004, nine geographical populations of codling moth Cydia pomonella (Linnaeus) from 4 north western provinces of Iran were collected. By preparing 575 images from fore wings and 564 from hind wings, a total of 15 and 11 landmarks were determined for fore and hind wings, respectively. With transforming of landmark's geometrical data into partial warp scores, 26 and 18 scores were obtained for fore and hind wings, respectively. Canonical correlation analysis (CCA) revealed significant correlation between environmental parameters and wing shape variables. Among environmental parameters, wind speed showed the highest correlation with wing shape variables whereas, the correlation between latitude, relative humidity as well as amount of precipitation and wing shape variables was low. Considering the effect of various environmental parameters on wing shape, wind speed was determined as important parameter affecting geographic dimorphism. Among the populations collected from different regions, two geographic population pairs; Meshkinshahr-Mahneshan and Zandjan-Khoramdareh were selected as representative of low and high windy regions, respectively. Relative warp analysis (RWA) of fore and hind wings shape variables in the areas with high and low wind showed shorter and wider fore wings as well as slender and narrower hind wings in populations from high windy regions compared with populations from low wind regions. Centroid size of fore and hind wings in high windy area populations were smaller compared with those from low windy ones as revealed by t-test. The results showed aerodynamic shape and small size of wings are as adapted traits for powerful flight and its control in high windy regions.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Adams D. C., Funk D. J. Morphometric inferences on sibling species and sexual dimorphism in Neochlamisus bebbianae leaf beetles: multivariate applications of the thin- plate spline // Systematic Biology. - 1997. - 46. - P. 180-194.

  • Alipanah H., Rezapanah M. R., Sari A. R. Study of the morphometric variations of codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.) in some parts of Iran // Proc. 16th Iranian Plant Protection Congress, 28 Aug.—1 Sept. - 2004. - P. 99.

  • Bernardo U., Pedata P. A., Viggiani, G. Phenotypic plasticity of pigmentation and morphometric traits in Pnigalio soemius (Hymenoptera, Eulophidae) // Bull. Entomol. Res. - 2007. - 97. - P. 101-109.

  • Bookstein F. L. Size and shape: A comment on semantics // Zoological Systematics. - 1989. - 38. - P. 173-180.

  • Borror D. G., Triplehorn C. A., Johnson N. F. An introduction to the study of insects. - 6th ed. - Philadelphia: Saunders College Publishing. - 1989. - P. 761-763.

  • DeVries P. J., Murray D., Lande R. Species diversity in vertical, horizontal and temporal dimensions of a fruit-feeding butterfly community in an Ecuadorian rainforest // Biological J. Linnean Society. - 1997. - 62. - P. 343-364.

  • Dorn, S. Schumacher P. Abivardi C., Meyhofer R. Global and regional pest insects and their antagonists in orchards: spatial dynamics // Agri. Ecos. and Environ. - 1999. - 73. - P. 111-118.

  • Epila J. S. O. Wind, crop pests and agro-forest design // Agri. Sys. - 1988. - 26. - P. 99-110.

  • Groombridge B. Global biodiversity; Status of the Earth's living resources. - Chapman and Hall / CRC Press, 1992. - 285 p.

  • Hood C. S. Geometric Morphometric approaches to the study of sexual size dimorphism in mammals // Hystrix. - 2000. - 11. - P. 77-90.

  • Jones C. J., Green G. L., Isard S. Dispersal of stable flies: Phenology of dispersing flies // The American Naturalist. - 2003. - 112. - P. 1017-1045.

  • Kemp D. J. Phenotypic plasticity in field populations of the tropical butterfly Hypolimneas bolina (L.) (Nymphalidae) // Biol. J. Lin. Soc. - 2001. - 72. - P. 33-45.

  • Khaghaninia S., Mohamadi S. A., Sarafrazi A. M., et al. Geometric morphometric approach on sexual dimorphism of Cydia pomonella (Lep.; Tortricidae) in north west of Iran // J. Ent. Soc. Iran - 2008. - 28 (1). - P. 51-62.

  • Kunkel J. G. Shape changes in biology, D'Arcy Thompson's classic fish transformation //

  • Lambert M. R. K. Some factors affecting flight in field populations of the Australian plague locust, Chortoicetes terminifera (Walker), in New South Wales // Animal Behaviour. - 1972. - 20. - P. 205-217.

  • Mani E., Wildbolz T., Riggenbach W. Effect of pheromone trap position in large and small trees and in the open field on the catch of codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. males // Mitt. Schweiz. Entomol. Gesell. - 1995. - 68. - P. 69-78.

  • Moghadam M., Mohammadi S. A., Aghaie Sarborzeh M. Multivariate statistical methods. - Pishtaz Pub. - 1994. - 208 p.

  • Narcis V., Jordi B. Weather-depending pollinatory activity in an apple orchard, with special reference to Osmia cornuta and Apis mellifera (Hymenoptera: Megachilidae and Apidae) // Environ. Entomol. - 2000. - 29. - P. 413-420.

  • Pasek J. E. Influence of wind and windbreaks on local dispersal of insects // Agri. Ecos. & Environ. - 1988. - 22. - P. 539-554.

  • Rohlf F. J. Morphometrics // Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics. - 1990. - 12. - P. 299-316.

  • Sadeghi R., Sari A. R., Sarafrazi A. M., Alipanah H. Study of the morphometric variations of host populations of codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.) in some parts of Iran // M. S. Thesis. University of Thehran. - 2005. - P. 109-119.

  • Schumacher P., Weber D. C., Hagger C., Dorn S. Heritability of flight distance for Cydia pomonella // Entomol. Exp. Appl. - 1997. - 85. - P. 169-175.

  • Szabo T. I. Effect of weather factors on honeybee (Apis mellifera) flight activity and colony weight gain // J. Agri. Res. - 1980. - 19. - P. 164-171.

  • Voigt E. Observations on the flight activity of codling moth, Cidia pomonella L. // IOBC Wprs Bull. - 1999. - 22. - P. 91-98.

  • Zahiri R., Sarafrazi A. M., Salehi L., Kunkel J. G. A geometric morphometric study on populations of Rice Stem Borer, Chilo suppressalis W. (Lep.: Crambidae) in northern Iran // Zoology in the Middle East. - 2004. - 38. - P. 73-84.