Nontraditional student is understood as one of the older students enrolled in formal or informal studies. In the literature, there is no detailed generalisation of nontraditional student. This article aims to reveal the concept of this particular group of students. Analysing the definition of nontraditional students, researchers identify the main criteria that allow to provide a more comprehensive concept of the nontraditional student. The main one is the age of these atypical students coming to study at the university, their selected form of studies, adult social roles status characteristics, such as family, parenting and financial independence as well as the nature of work. The described features of the nontraditional student demonstrate how the unconventional nontraditional student is different from the traditional one, which features are characteristic for them and how they reflect the nontraditional student’s maturity and experience in comparison with younger, traditional students. Key features - independence, internal motivation, experience, responsibility, determination. They allow nontraditional students to pursue their life goals, learn and move towards their set goals. University student identity is determined on the basis of the three positions: on the age suitability by social norms, the learning outcomes incorporated with age, on the creation of student’s ideal image. There are four students’ biographical profiles distinguished: wandering type, seeking a degree, intergrative and emancipatory type. They allow to see the biographical origin of nontraditional students, their social status as well as educational features. Biographical profiles presented allow to comprise the nontraditional student’s portrait of different countries. Traditional and nontraditional students’ learning differences are revealed by analysing their need for knowledge, independence, experience, skill to learn, orientation and motivation aspects. To sum up, the analysis of the scientific literature can formulate the concept of the nontraditional student. Nontraditional student refers to the category of 20-65 years of age who enrolls into higher education studies in a nontraditional way, is financially independent, with several social roles of life, studying full-time or part-time, and working full-time or part-time, or not working at all.
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
1. Andriekienė R. M. Anužienė B. (2006). Andragoginiai kompetencijų tobulinimo aspektai tęstiniame profesiniame mokyme. Monografija. Klaipėda: Klaipėdos universiteto leidykla.
2. Adebayo D. O. (2006). Workload social support and work-school conflict among nigerian nontraditional students. Journal of Career Development 33(2) 125-141
3. Alexander P. A. Murphy P. K. Woods B. S. Duhon K. E. & Parker D. (1997). College instruction and concomitant changes in students’ knowledge interest and strategy use: A study of domain learning. Contemporary Educational Psychology 22 125-146
4. Bennett S. Evans T. & Riedle J. (2007). Comparing academic motivation and accomplishments among traditional nontraditional and distance education college students. Psi Chi Journal of Undergraduate Research 12(4) 154-161.
5. Bye D. Pushkar D. & Conway M. (2007). Motivation interest and positive affect in traditional and nontraditional undergraduate students. Adult Education Quarterly 57(2) 141-158.
6. Byman D. (2007). Veterans and colleges have a lot to offer each other. Chronicle of Higher Education 54(16) 1-9.
7. Bradley M. & Cleveland-Innes M. (1992). Valuing diversity: Responding to the needs of adult students at the University of Calgary. University of Calgary.
8. Carney-Crompton S. & Tan J. (2002). Support systems psychological functioning and academic performance of nontraditional female students. Adult Education Quarterly 52 140-154.
9. Chartrand J. M. (1990). A Causal analysis to predict the personal and academic adjustment of nontraditional students. Journal of Counseling Psychology 37(1) 65-73.
10. Choy S. (2002). Nontraditional undergraduates: Findings from the condition of education. Washington DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.
11. Christie H. Tett L. Cree VE. Hounsell J. & McCune V. (2008). A real rollercoaster of confidence and emotions: learning to be a university student. Studies in Higher Education 33(5) 567-581.
12. Chung E. Turnbull D. & Chur-Hansen A. (2014). Who are „non-traditional” students? A systematic review of published definitions in research on mental health of tertiary students. Educational Research and Review 9(22) 1224-1238.
13. Clark M.R. (2006). Challenges and best practices on urban commuter campuses. About Campus 11(3) 2-8
14. Cleveland-Innes M. (1994). Adult student drop-out at post-secondary institutions. Review of Higher Education 17(4) 423-445.
15. Conrad J. (1993). Educating Part-Time Adult Learners in Transition. Available at: http://www.ericdigests.org/1993/part.htm
16. Crawford D.L. (2004). The Role of aging in adult learning: Implications for instructors in Higher Education. Available at: http://www.newhorizons.org/lifelong/higher_ed/crawford.htm
17. Croix W (2009). It’s Back to School for Adult Learners: New Traditions in Higher Education. Available at: http://www.worldwidelearn.com/education-advisor/indepth/adult-learner-online.php
18. Donohue T. L. & Wong E. H. (1997). Achievement motivation and college satisfaction in traditional and nontraditional students. Education 118(2) 237 - 243.
19. Dupond P. & Ossandon M. (1998). A pedagogia universitária. Coimbra: Coimbra Editora.
20. Everly J.S. Poff D.W. Lamport N. & Hamant C. (1994). Perceived stressors and coping strategies of occupational therapy students. American Journal of Occupational Therapy 48(11) 1022-1028.
21. Fidishun D. (2011). Andragogy and technology: Integrating adult learning theory as we teach with technology. Available at: http://frank.mtsu.edu/~itconf/proceed00/fidishun.htm
22. Field J. (2000). Lifelong learning and the new educational order. Sterling VA: Trentham Books.
23. Gadzella B. M. Stephens R. & Baloglu M. (2002). Prediction of educational psychology course grades by age and learning style scores. College Student Journal 36 62-69.
24. Graham S. & Donaldson J. F. (1999). Adult students academic and intellectual development in college. Adult Education Quarterly 49(3) 147-161.
25. Hemby V.K. (1997). Effects of Keyboarding Skill on Self-Reported Computer Anxiety among Traditional versus Nontraditional College Students. Delta Pi Epsilon Journal 39(1) 24-38.
26. Hiemstra R. (2006). Is the Internet Changing Self-Directed Learning? Rural Users Provide Some Answers. International Journal of Self-Directed Learning 3 (2): 45–60.
27. Hirschorn M. W. (1988). Students over 25 found to make up 45 percent of campus enrollments. Chronicle of Higher Education 39(50) 17-22
28. Jarvis P. (1995). Adult and Continuing Education: Theory and Practice. London: Routledge
29. Jegelevičienė V. Merfeldaitė O. Railienė A. (2016). Mokinių mokymosi motyvacijos silpnėjimo priežastys: tėvų požiūris. Pedagogika 124(4) 117-128
30. Justice E. M. & Dornan T. M. (2001). Metacognitive differences between traditional-age and nontraditional age college students. Adult Education Quarterly 51 236-249.
31. Kasworm C. (2003). Adult meaning making in the undergraduate classroom. Adult Education Quarterly 53(2) 81-98.
32. Knowles M. (1984). The adult learner: A neglected species. Houston TX: Gulf.
33. Knowles M. S. (1984). Andragogy in action. San Francisco CA: Josey-Bass Publishers.
34. Kuh G. (1993) In their own words: What students learn outside the classroom. American Educational Research Journal 30(2) 277 - 304.
35. Lawler A. (2003) Teachers as Adult Learners. A New Perspective New Directions for Adult and Continuing Education 98(1) 6-10
36. Lovell R. B. (1797). Adult Learning. Routledge: London
37. Macpherson K. (2002). Problem-solving ability and cognitive maturity in undergraduate students. Assessment and Evaluation in Higher Education 27 5-22.
38. National Center for Education Statistics. (2006). Digest of educations statistics 2005 (NCES 2006-005). Available at: https://nces.ed.gov/pubs2007/2007017.pdf
39. Nunn G. D. (1994). Adult learners’ locus of control self-evaluation and learning temperament as a function of age and gender. Journal of Instructional Psychology 21(3) 260-264.
40. Pintrich P. R. Smith D. A. Garcia T. & McKeachie W. J. (1991). A manual for the use of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ). Ann Arbor: University of Michigan National Center for Research to Improve Postsecondary Teaching and Learning
41. Rogers A (2002). Teaching adults. Buckingham:Open University Press.
42. Sansone C. & Smith J. L. (2000). Interest and self-regulation: The relation between having to and wanting to. Educational Research Journal 20(1) 341-372.
43. Schuetze H. G. & Slowey M. (2002). Participation and exclusion: A comparative analysis of non-traditional students and lifelong learners in higher education. Higher Education 44(3-4) 309–327.
44. Sewell P.M. (2000). Students in Part-time Higher Education - Perceptions of Skills. Innovations in Education and Teaching International 37(4) 304-313
45. Shankar A.D. (2004). Interpreting the Narratives of Non-Traditional Students: An Exploratory Study. Available at: http://www.eric.ed.gov
46. Sweet S. & Moen P. (2007). Integrating educational careers in work and family. Community Work & Family 10(2) 231-250.
47. Tandzegolskienė I. Rutkienė A. Pileckaitė R. (2010). Savarankiškos veiklos samprata universitetinėse studijose. Profesinis rengimas: tyrimai ir realijos 19 196-209.
48. Teichler U. & Wolter A. (2004). Studierchancen und Studienangebote für Studierende außerhalb des Mainstreams in Deutschland: Eine Bestandsaufnahme anlässlich der Diskussion über die Zukunft der HWP. Hamburger Universität für Wirtschaft und Politik. Magazin Spezial 2. Hamburg
49. Thunborg C. Bron A. & Edström E. (2013). Motives commitment and student identity in higher education - experiences of non-traditional students in Sweden. Studies in the Education of Adults 45(2) 11-17
50. Tolutienė G. Vėlavičiūtė A. (2012). Universiteto studentų heterogeniškumas socialiniais – demografiniais mokymosi aspektais. Tiltai4 21-27.
51. Vansteenkiste M. Simons J. Lens W. Soenens B. Matos L. & Lacante M. (2004). Less is sometimes more: Goal content matters. Journal of Educational Psychology 96 755-764.
52. Wyatt L. E. (2011). Nontraditional student engagement: Increasing adult student success and retention. The Journal of Continuing Higher Education 59 10-20
53. Zmeyov S. I. (1998). Andragogy: Origins developments and trends. International Review of Education 44(1) 103-108.
54. Zuzevičiūtė V. Teresevičienė M. (2007). Universitetinės studijos mokymosi visą gyvenimą perspektyvoje. Monografija. Kaunas: VDU leidykla.
55. Žydžiūnaitė V. Teresevičienė M. (2012). Savarankiškas mokymasis – prasmingo dialogo tarp aukštosios studento ir dėstytojo galimybės? Mokslo Lietuva 10. Available at: http://mokslasplius.lt/mokslo-lietuva/2012/2012/10/savarankiskas-mokymasis-prasmingo-dialogo-tarp-aukstosios-mokyklos-studento-ir-destytojo-galimybe