The Effect of Rootstocks on the Fruit Characteristic Attributes of ‘Jonica’ Apples
Apples of ‘Jonica’ originated from mature trees grown on various vegetative rootstocks (M.9, M.26, P22, P 59 and P 60) were subjected to quality evaluations at harvest, after storage and after simulated shelf-life. Fruits were picked at optimum harvest date and stored accordingly to recommended in Poland for that cultivar conditions. At harvest, fruit with the highest flesh firmness were obtained from trees on P59, P22 and P60. The same effects of those rootstocks on providing higher firmness of fruits were observed after storage and additional shelf life period. Lower firmness values were noted in the case of fruit from trees on rootstocks M.9 and M.26, respectively. Total soluble contents of fruit from trees on P59, P22 were significantly higher than in the case of other rootstocks under study. Titratable acidity of fruits from trees on P59 and M.26 was higher than in fruits from other rootstocks.
Dry matter of fruit from trees grown on rootstock P59 were the highest, followed by fruit from P22 and M.9 respectively. Physiological disorders (bitter pit and breakdown) were noted during post-storage phase if only M.9 and M.26 rootstocks were used. Weight loses during storage due to transpiration and respiration did not show the effect of rootstocks. The lowest shares of sound fruit after storage and after simulated shelf life period were observed for fruit from trees grafted on rootstock M.9.
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