Consumer preferences and behaviour in shopping malls in Poland with the particular reference to Krakow

Anna Irena Szymańska
  • Pedagogical University of Cracow, Institute of Geography Department of Entrepreneurship and Spatial Management Podchorążych, St. 2, 30–084, Krakow, Poland
  • Search for other articles:
  • degruyter.comGoogle Scholar
and Monika Płaziak
  • Corresponding author
  • Pedagogical University of Cracow, Institute of Geography Department of Entrepreneurship and Spatial Management Podchorążych, St. 2, 30–084, Krakow, Poland
  • Email
  • Search for other articles:
  • degruyter.comGoogle Scholar

Abstract

Large shopping centres have become an important element of the urban landscape and a major competitor with other forms of retail sale. Their large offer, including a wide variety of products and services, special offers and tasting campaigns, large car parks, and own-brand fuel stations as well as various services points located in shopping centres successfully win customers.

The present study focuses on Polish shopping centres (malls), particularly those located in Krakow. A shopping centre (mall) is defined as “a commercial property designed, constructed and managed as a single business entity, comprising stores/shops and common areas, with a minimum leasable area of 5 thousand m2 (GLA) and accommodating at least 10 stores/shops”.

The purpose of this paper is to examine the behaviour of prospective customers of shopping centres, their preferences when selecting their shopping locations, and declarations on the use of additional functions offered by commercial and services enterprises. Furthermore, the paper identifies non-commercial functions of shopping malls of particular interest to prospective customers. The paper also presents a profile of a consumer who has a preference for shopping and spending their free time in malls.

The conclusions are based on literature on the subject and the findings of a survey conducted by the authors of the paper. A questionnaire was used as a research tool. The survey covered 1756 respondents – mainly residents of Krakow. In order to broaden the scope of the conclusions, the results of surveys and studies of other authors were also used.

Introduction

In recent years there has been a growing impact of shopping malls on the lives of people and local communities as well as on the functioning of business enterprises operating within their impact zone. The expansion of shopping centres, supermarkets, hypermarkets and discount stores is one the signs of the concentration of trade (Pokorska & Maleszyk 2002: 37-38). This has developed rapidly in Poland and contributed to major changes, both in the area of supply and that of demand (macro) and in the individual shopping behaviour of buyers (micro).

Due to the considerable diversity of shopping malls, there is no single commonly applied definition. Dietl defines a shopping mall as an intentional form of spatial concentration of retail trade under common management providing services to the mall (Dietl 1992: 78). According to J. Altkorn and T. Kramer, a shopping mall is a group of retail stores and service providers, usually constituting separate business entities, forming one complex in commercial, construction, architectural, organisational and administrative terms, providing a comprehensive range of products and services to customers. (Altkorn & Kramer 1998: 176). The major objective of a shopping mall is to provide the customers with a broad range of products and services without the need to leave the building (Knecht-Tarczewska 2011: 296). The International Council of Shopping Centres defined a shopping centre as “a commercial property designed, constructed and managed as a single business entity, comprising stores/shops and common areas with a minimum leasable area of 5 thousand m2 (GLA)1 and accommodating at least 10 stores/shops”2 (Mikołajczyk 2009: 138-139).

The major purpose of the present paper based on the available literature on the subject and the findings of surveys, was the analysis of the behaviour of prospective customers of shopping centres. Its objectives include analysing consumer preferences as regards the selection of shopping locations and their declarations on the use of the additional functions offered by the commercial and service enterprises examined. Moreover, the non-commercial functions of shopping centres of particular interest to prospective customers were identified, and a profile was developed of a consumer who has a preference for shopping and spending free time in shopping centres.

Shopping centres as an object of study

The first research projects on shopping centres began in the 1940s (Lillibridge 1948). In the 2nd half of the 20th century, four main themes of research had crystallised and formed, each focusing on a different aspect of shopping centres: technical issues, location, economy and organisation, and behavioural issues (Feinberg & Meoli 1991; Eppli & Benjamin 1994; Solal 1998; Tubridy 2006). The technical theme deals with a wide range of design and engineering problems, from the development of an architectural plan and urban planning proposal to the process of construction and detailed urban planning features (Gruen & Smith 1960; Redstone 1973; Gillette 1985; Beddington 1991; Coleman 2006; Jodido 2010; Mesher 2010). In many studies, shopping centres are criticised because of their overscaling and the damage they do to the historical structure of cities (Jałowiecki 2005; Setkowicz 2008) as a result of the commercialisation of architecture and subordination of town planning principles to marketing strategies (Chase 1991; Pedreschi 2000). On the other hand, in western countries shopping centres are ranked third (after home and work) as regards the time which people spend in them (Naisbitt 1997).

The location theme is linked to research initiated in the 1940s on the identification of variables affecting the location of shopping centres, covering the systematisation of the existing location factors and the identification of new ones (Gruen & Smith 1960; Yue-min 1984), together with the creation of spatial distribution models taking into account their impact zones. Location theories deployed for that purpose included, for example, the theories of: H. Hotelling, W. Christaller, A. Lösh, W. Alonso, network theories, theories on the interaction of spatial models, and the eclectic theory of international production by J. M. Dunning (Sternquist 1997; Mutebi 2007).

Another important topic of research is the analysis of changes in the urban tissue caused by shopping centres (Mumford 1961; Longstreth 1997), creating new “hearts” of cities/towns, modifying the structure of an urban centre, decentralising the city area, and appropriating public space (Staeheli & Mitchell 2006; Zipser 2010).

Economic and organisational themes in research on shopping centres deal with the determinants and interdependencies in the area of production, distribution, and consumption of goods, together with marketing and the development and management of multi-service large area stores. The issues discussed include the processes of concentration and evolution of trade, the impact of shopping centres on the development of competition strategies and of instruments on the large format retail establishments market, and planning, implementing, and controlling marketing strategies (Kotler 1994; Sit, Merrilees & Birch 2003). The interdependencies between the consumer and the shopping centre (Dennis 2005) are also investigated. An important issue is also e-commerce via e-stores and auction platforms, which can be described as virtual shopping centres (Massagli 2000; Hendershott, Hendershott & Hendershott 2001; Ciechomski 2010).

The behavioural theme focuses on the functioning of consumers in the era of consumption (Baudrillard 1998; Aldridge 2006). The development of consumption as an important aspect of the life of a human to whom shopping has become the most important form of social activity (Clarke 2003) is also highlighted. Shopping centres are presented as a permanent element of social life of considerable cultural or even religious importance (Kramer 1996), its impact on and presence in human lives as a place for spending free time, and its role as a tourist attraction, or even an object of inspiration for artists (Davis 1991; Makowski 2003; Wilk 2003).

Development and functioning of shopping centres in Poland

The political and economic changes that took place in Poland after 1989 triggered a dynamic development of trade and services. This is particularly strongly manifested in the opening of a great number of super and hypermarkets. As Poles have grown richer and the economic situation in Poland has improved, new commercial facilities began to emerge, whose offer has become gradually broader. The first shopping centre in Poland was Panorama, opened in May 1993 in Warsaw (Najlepsze galerie…) which is still operating. In subsequent years, the number of new shopping centres has grown. In the first three years, 100 thousand m2 of GLA were brought into use, while in 1999, this figure was more than 900 thousand m2. In 2015, there were 481 shopping centres in Poland, with a total leasable area equalling 10.9 M m2, and a retail space per 1000 residents ratio of 283 m2 (Figure 1). The EU ratio in the same year was approx. 290 m2 (Mikołajczyk 2015: 180; Colliers International 2016).

Figure 1
Figure 1

Supply of leasable area in shopping centres in Poland in successive years, in the period 1993-2015

Source: based on Polska Rada Centrów Handlowych 2015: 3

Citation: Urban Development Issues 55, 3; 10.2478/udi-2018-0003

A considerable diversification of shopping centres has triggered a need to define their typology. The most common is the generation typology, based on the successive stages of structural and functional development of shopping centres (Table 1).

Table 1

Generations of shopping centres

Source: own analysis based on: Kaczmarek, 2010; Twardzik, 2014; Czekamy na centra… 2008Krakowski Rynek Nieruchomości 2014; Krakowski Rynek Nieruchomości 2014

Shopping & services centre (area/zone of impact)Retail functionsAuxiliary functionsExamples of Shopping Centres in Poland
1st generation (up 20 000 m2, district)Hypermarket, small shopping centre (up to 50 stores)Few service providers (laundry, household equipment repair point, post, telecommunication providers), restaurant (fast food)Ml in Marki, Galeria Tesco on Połczyńska Street in Warsaw, Auchan Piaseczno
2nd generation (20 000–50 000 m2, whole city)Hypermarket, 2–3 specialist markets (e.g. interior design and garden, household appliances and electronic equipment), large-clothes stores, small shops (up to 100 stores)Service providers - as above, additionally: beauty parlours, hairdressers, travel agencies, playgrounds for kids, several restaurants (bars, cafés), amusement arcade, small performance stageKlif, Galeria Wileńska, Reduta or Carrefour Bemowo in Warszaw, Ml shopping centres, King Cross, Plaza
3rd generation (50 000–200 000 m2, region, whole country)1 or more hypermarkets, numerous specialist stores, shopping arcades and multi-storey stores (100–500 stores/shops)Service providers as above, designated dining area (food court), (multiplex), disco, leisure and entertainment zone (amusement arcade, bowling, indoor climbing wall, skatepark etc.) fitness clubs, thematic parks for kids, chapel, medical servicesGaleria Kazimierz in Krakow, Bonarka City Center, Galeria Krakowska, Plaza in Krakow, Galeria Mokotów in Warszaw, CH Fokus in Rybnik, Galeria Sfera in Bielsko Biała, Galeria Dominikańska in Wrocław.
4th generation (above 200 000 m2, whole country, international impact)1 or more hypermarkets, specialist markets, department stores, shopping precincts (500-1000 stores/shops), markets, thematic malls, replicas of shopping streets and squaresService providers as above, office premises, accommodation facilities, museums, art galleries, performance halls, thematic entertainment parks, casinos, leisure zones (gardens, fountains, waterfalls, aquaria), discovery centres, sports and recreation facilities (pitches, aquapark, ice rink)Złote Tarasy in Warsaw, Stary Browar in Poznan, Silesia City Center, Manufaktura in Łodz, Centrum Magnolia Park in Wrocław, Stocznia in Gdańsk, Galeria Bronowice in Krakow
5th generationSelf-sustaining towns whose residents will not have to go anywhere to satisfy their needs. They will sleep there (flats and apartments), work there (offices), shop (stores/shops), eat (restaurants and bars), play (entertainment/amusement zones), practise sports and get medical care (health care centres), and have their children looked after (nurseries, kindergartens, schools).None in Poland*.

Large format retail establishments forming shopping centres of the 1st generation emerged in Poland in the mid-1990s – these were hypermarkets with a relatively small shopping arcade, initially of between 5 and 10 thousand m2 (Ciechomski 2010: 49). In time, the average size evolved to approx. 15-20 thousand m2. They were Generations of shopping centres usually located in suburban areas, close to large housing estates, near important transport routes.

The 2nd generation of shopping centres developed in Poland at the end of the 1990s. They comprised a hypermarket, specialist store (home & garden, electronic equipment and household appliances), large clothing stores and an arcade of small shops (80–100), offering a range of commercial, entertainment and food services, in which a hypermarket occupied usually 1/3 of the total area, and the remaining retail and service enterprises occupied 2/3 (Ciechomski 2010: 49). Shoppin centres were located far from city centres, but offered a free shuttle bus service.

The 3rd generation of shopping centres evolved at the beginning of the 21st century. What differentiates this from the two preceding generations is the provision of entertainment (multiplexes) as well as the offer of leisure and sports products and a broader range of lessees selling luxury global brands. These shopping centres are mainly located in city centres or central districts and have a positive effect on them as they regenerate the impoverished retail offer of the city centres.

What distinguishes the 4th generation of shopping centres from their predecessors is the presence of offices and hotels. Moreover, apart from the comfortable shopping conditions, they also offer an opportunity to relax and rest. Apart from restaurants and cinemas, there are also art galleries, concert halls, discos, gyms, indoor climbing walls, sports halls, beauty parlours, hair dressers’, SPAs, fun fairs for kids, aquaria, and go kart tracks (Ciechomski 2010: 50). Many new facilities emerge in the neighbourhood of shopping centres, such as office buildings, housing estates, or fuel stations. So, the shopping centres are no longer retail establishments, but become, most of all, a place where people go to spend their free time and meet.

There is no 5th generation shopping centre in Poland, yet. The underlying concept is to transform a shopping centre into a self-sustainable little town. This purpose will be achieved through the expansion of the existing retail, service, entertainment, office and accommodation functions to include residential premises as well as care and education establishments (kindergartens and schools). All needs of the customers-residents will be satisfied “under one roof”, without the need to leave the centre. The vision of 5th generation shopping centres affects their development around the world.

Overview of the shopping centres operating in Krakow

The Polish retail market has been in a state of continuous development since the 1990s. In 2015, there were 481 shopping centres in Poland, with total retail leasable area (GLA) of approx. 10.9 M m2.

Krakow is ranked 6 in the Polish retail market in terms of commercial space available for lease. The total leasable area in 2015 was 548 thousand m2 accounting for 10% of the total area of major retail markets. These included shopping centres, retail parks, and outlet centres (Table 2).

Table 2

Key indicators of the market for shopping centres in Krakow*

* Certain minor inconsistencies should be noted between individual categories of indicators provided in various studies. However, they show the general trends of transformations taking place in the Polish shopping centre market

Source: own elaboration based on: Colliers International 2016; Almanach centrów handlowych 2013/14; Twardzik 2014

Description20122015
KrakowPolandKrakowWarsawPoland
Number of shopping centres in operation134201545481
Number of planned shopping centres1301725
Total gross leasable area (GLA) in shopping centres (m2)495 thousand12.3 M548 thousand1.46 M10.9 M
Shopping centres GLA per capita ratio (m2 per 1000 residents)430530569283
218
Rent in the best shopping centres (in the fashion sector, area of approx. 100 m2, m2/month)42-47 EUR75-90 EUR43-45 EUR105-110 EURup to 150 EUR
Rate of unoccupied area in shopping centres (%)3.3-3.81.54.0

The retail market in Poland, including Krakow, is varied in terms of the format of the projects. In Krakow, shopping centres dominate. Third generation centres (supermarkets or hypermarkets with a shopping arcade and entertainment zone) have the largest share in the market: Bonarka City Center, Galeria Krakowska, Galeria Kazimierz and Krakow Plaza. Krakow is one of the five Polish cities with a 4th generation shopping centre, combining a shopping arcade with a lessee grocery, cinema, entertainment, leisure and culture zone (Table 1): Galeria Bronowice (60 thousand m2), the newest shopping centre in Krakow (Krakowski Rynek Nieruchomości 2014).

In total, there are 16 retail establishments in Krakow, most of them (fourteen out of sixteen) within the Krakow city limits, and the remaining two in Modlniczka (Futura Park Krakow and Factory Krakow). Krakow shopping centres accommodate, in total, 1,400 units, and one unit (shop/service point) serves, on average, 715 persons. The largest group of lessees represent fashion store chains (26%), services (14%), footwear and leather wear (8%). In Krakow one shopping centre serves an average of 66,670 people (residents of Krakow). The average annual per capita purchasing power of Krakow residents is PLN 30 488, while per square metre of shopping centre area it is PLN 55,630 (Colliers International 2016).

As of the end of 4Q 2015, the ratio of retail space per 1,000 inhabitants in Krakow was 530 m2. Upon completion of CH Serenada (150 retail and service units, with a total area of approx. 42,000 m2), in Czyzyny, near CH Krokus, Multikino and Aquapark, which is planned at the end of 2017, the ratio will increase to 590 m2/per 1,000 residents.

Methodological framework

At the end of 2015 and at the beginning of 2016, a direct market survey was conducted designed to analyse the behaviour patterns of prospective clients of shopping centres. This looked at their preferences as regards the selection of shopping locations, declarations on the use of additional services offered by retail and service establishments, and the identification of the non-retail functions of shopping centres of particular interest to prospective consumers.

The surveys were conducted in all districts of Krakow using a questionnaire. The respondents were selected at random. The survey was conducted in all districts in order to avoid the effect of correlation between the place of residence and the place of shopping, and – consequently – choosing the nearest shopping centre as the most attractive place for shopping.

The survey covered 1,756 respondents – mainly residents of Krakow. Women accounted for slightly more than 60% of respondents, while men for nearly 40%. Almost 50% of respondents were people in work and with secondary education (Table 3).

Table 3

Overview of survey respondents (%)

Source: own elaboration based on the research conducted

SexAgeEducational backgroundRespindent’s profession/occupation
WomanMan18–2021–3031–4041–5051–60> 60Primary/VocationalSecondaryHigherEmployedUnemployedStudent/University student
62.137.913.635.820.111.39.89.313.548.537.949.716.433.9

In order to expand the scope of data for conclusions, the findings of the surveys conducted among 600 residents of the outer zone of the Upper Silesia conurbation in 2012 and the impact zone of Bielsko-Biala, Rybnik and Czestochowa (direct interviews) were also used. The respondents were residents of selected towns/villages, doing shopping in selected shopping centres. Locations within the impact zone of at least one shopping centre were eligible to be included in the survey. The study was non exhaustive and the results have already been published in a paper by M. Twardzik (2014).

The results of surveys conducted among 1093 respondents in Lodz in 2010 were also used for the purpose of the analysis. The survey dealt with, inter alia, the perception of the “shopping” and the results were presented in a paper by A. Rochmińska (2012).

The importance of shopping centres to consumers - analysis of survey results

The respondents participating in the survey - residents of Krakow, asked about their preferences as regards the shopping locations that they declared they used most often, chose shopping centres (24.8%) and discount stores (20.0%) for practical reasons, i.e. ability to buy all the necessary products in one location, the wide range of products on offer, and the attractive prices of products and services. The following pattern was also observed - the older the respondents, the greater the number of people declaring that they shop in markets and small local shops (Table 4).

Table 4

Preferences of respondents in individual age groups as regards type of retail establishment

* Respondents were allowed to select more than one preferred type of retail establishment

Source: Płaziak & Szymańska 2017: 235

Respondents(N=1756)
Type of retail establishment% of total number respondentsRespondent’s age (%)
16-2021-3031- 4041-5051-60< 60
Shopping centre24.817.242.923.610.54.01.7
Hyper- or supermarket14.810.939.726.511.57.73.6
Local shop14.46.326.418.613.016.719.0
Discount store (e.g.: „Biedronka”, „Lidl”)20.111.135.920.313.210.68.8
Wholesale stores2.69.932.417.119.813.57.2
Market place10.43.623.415.315.119.323.4
E-shops13.117.948.225.46.41.30.9

According to the respondents, the two Krakow shopping centres that were most popular and most frequently chosen as the ones having the widest range of products and services were: Bonarka City Center and Galeria Krakowska. They are the biggest retail establishments of that type in Krakow. Bonarka City Center has the biggest area (91 000 m2 GLA), while Galeria Krakowska, although smaller (57 700 m2 GLA), has a wider range of shops/stores, service points and catering facilities (approx. 300)3, and a very attractive location – next to the main Krakow railway station Krakow Glowny and close to the historic part of the city. The least often visited is Tesco in Wielicka Street and CH King Square (Table 5).

Table 5

Krakow shopping centres selected by the respondents as having the most comprehensive offer and most often visited by them

Source: own analysis based on the research conducted

Shopping centreThe most comprehensive offer (%)The most often visited (%)
Bonarka City Center28.318.1
Galeria Krakowska26.726.3
Galeria Bronowice9.710.9
M1 Centrum Handlowe Krakow8.19.6
Galeria Kazimierz7.38.1

Slightly over 83% of respondents admit that they visit large format retail establishments to shop and use other services offered there. Nearly two thirds of the respondents pointed to the wide range of products offered as the most frequent reason to visit a shopping centre. Every third person surveyed shopped in the shopping centres due to their low prices and small distance from their place of residence (Figure 2).

Figure 2
Figure 2

Reasons why people visit shopping centres

Source: analysis based on own research

Citation: Urban Development Issues 55, 3; 10.2478/udi-2018-0003

It should be noted that the reasons for choosing a shopping centre as a preferred shopping location given by respondents do not depend on their place of residence. Similar reasons are given by residents of big cities (Krakow) and of smaller towns or villages within conurbations. The surveys conducted in selected locations within the Silesia region prove that the most important selection criterion for the majority of the respondents is the broad range of products and services offered (64.8%), ability to buy everything “under one roof” (49%), low prices (46.5%) and convenient opening hours (46%). Moreover, free parking areas and good communications with the city centre were important for every fifth respondent4(Twardzik 2014).

Nearly 40% of the respondents declared that they visited shopping centres once a week, usually on a weekday (50%), in the afternoon, between 15:00 and 17:00 (44.5%), and spent up to 3 hours there (73.5%) at a time. Similarly, respondents from small towns and rural areas also declare that they like the possibility to do a bigger shop for a longer period (42%); however, in this case one third of the respondents (living in towns and rural areas) identify the possibility of shopping on Saturdays and Sundays as their selection criterion. The products most frequently bought by shopping centre customers are: clothes (17%), food (13%), and cosmetics (12%).

Nearly two-thirds of Krakow residents use services offered by shopping centres. They include, in particular (Figure 3): catering (52%), cinema and entertainment services (70%), and health and beauty services (33.5%).

Figure 3
Figure 3

Services most popular among shopping centre visitors

Source: own elaboration

Citation: Urban Development Issues 55, 3; 10.2478/udi-2018-0003

There is no specific pattern in the responses given by the residents of Krakow as regards the preferred location of shopping centres within the city (Table 6). On the one hand, many of them are of the opinion that they should be located in suburban areas and on the outskirts, but many also said that they would love to see a shopping centre in a specific district, as the existing local shops and service facilities were insufficient. Nearly half admitted that the opening of a shopping centre adversely affected local shops, yet many of them prefer shopping centres as more convenient, offering a wider range of products and more attractive prices, and having useful auxiliary infrastructure.

Table 6

Opinions of respondents on the locations of shopping centre

Source: analysis based on own research

Location of the Shopping CentreDefinitely yes YesNo opinion NoDefinitely no
Opening of the shopping centre adversely affected local shops12.733.933.915.73.8
A shopping centre in this district is needed to supplement the offer of local shops and service provision facilities12.238.530.115.83.3
A shopping centre in this district is not needed, because the existing offer of local shops and service provision facilities is sufficient4.217.035.434.19.2
Shopping centres should be built in housing districts/estates8.228.422.131.210.1
Shopping centres should be built in the suburbs /outskirts12.237.421.722.75.9

The most decisive factors attracting customers to shopping centres are: prices, special offers and a varied offer at one place (Table 7). Over 80% of respondents admit that their main criterion when selecting a shop is the price, reduced/special prices, special offers, and nearly 71% declare that the products and services offered in shopping centres satisfy all their needs.

Table 7

Functions of shopping centres and consumer behaviour

Source: analysis based on own research

Functions of shopping centres and consumer behaviourDefinitely yes YesNo opinion NoDefinitely no
When shopping in a supermarket, I also visit stores/shops in the shopping arcade24.651.35.615.72.8
Going to supermarkets is a way of spending my free time9.224.27.237.322.2
I meet with my friends in shopping centres8.631.25.441.113.6
Products and services offered in a shopping centre satisfy all my needs18.352.211.016.22.2
When selecting a shop, I look at prices, special offers and discounts/reduced prices30.349.95.713.01.1
My shopping decisions are based on price (special price/discounts)19.550.27.920.22.1
I compare prices in various shops before buying a product16.438.38.433.73.2

A much smaller number of respondents treat a shopping centre as a place to meet with friends or spend free time. Over 59% of respondents say that a shopping centre is not a place where they spend free time, and nearly 55% say that it is not a place where they meet with friends.

Similarly, Lodz respondents (1,093) stated that their main reason to visit a shopping centre is to go shopping (94.2%), while nearly one quarter of the respondents mention the possibility of spending free time there or checking out new products. A total of 247 persons admitted that one of the key reasons to visit a shopping centre is spending free time there, and during their visit they go shopping (87%), eat in restaurants (37.6%), check out new products (33.2%) and participate in events and shows organised there (16.7%) (Rochmińska 2012).

The majority of respondents from the Silesia region (over 92%) most frequently visit shopping centres to do shopping, and only 2% of them spend free time there. Services and the offer of leisure/entertainment services at the shopping centres increase their attractiveness, but are not very important to shoppers (Twardzik 2014).

It seems worthwhile to ask the question why respondents participating in the survey so often deny that their visits to shopping centres are also connected with spending free time there. The problem may be the understanding of the notion of “free time” and how much free time the consumers actually have and, consequently, how they want to spend it so they could have the feeling that they have spent it effectively. Another issue is whether doing shopping or using other services offered by shopping centres (restaurants, cinema, health and beauty facilities, sports facilities, etc.) is perceived by respondents as a form of spending free time. Other factors which may affect the decisions on spending free time in shopping centres include age, financial position, marital status, stage in family life.

The available data from empirical studies show that spending free time in shopping centres is mainly preferred by young people. Nearly every second respondent aged below 23 and every third one aged 23-33, associates shopping centres not only with shopping, while in the age group above 45 years, it is only every tenth person. A pattern was also observed that the better is consumer’s own opinion of their financial status, the more they are interested in doing more than just shopping and in using a wide variety of services offered by a shopping centre and spending free time there. The surveys showed that this is the case with nearly every third respondent having a good or very good financial situation (Rochmińska 2012).

Conclusion and recommendations

A modern shopping centre addresses its offer of products and services to a new generation of consumers, young, middle-aged and mature, with good or very good income (Domański 2005). Older consumers are much less prone to succumb to new trends in fashion and the development of new products and services, so for them a convenient location is much more important - near their place of residence or in direct contact with a shop assistant whom they know and may ask for advice. They prefer small shops, easy access, comfort and the safety of shopping.

When summing up the results of a survey conducted in Krakow, an attempt could be made to create a profile of a typical consumer visiting a shopping centre. The authors of this paper are of the view that this is usually a person aged 21-30, less frequently 31-40, with secondary education, preferring the comfort offered by a shopping centre due to wide variety of products and services available, attractive prices and satisfactory quality, a broad range of auxiliary services, a convenient location and supplementary infrastructure. The person usually visits a shopping centre once a week, usually on a weekday, in the afternoon or early evening, between 15:00 and 17:00, and spends up to 3 hours at a time there. He or she most often buys clothes, food, and cosmetics. A typical consumer visiting a shopping centre does not associate being there with spending free time and meeting friends; however, he/she quite often uses the entertainment, leisure and sports services offered there. Therefore, there is a need to identify the profile of a typical consumer spending free time in a shopping centre, which will be the subject of further research by the authors of the present paper.

References

  • Aldridge, A. (2006) Konsumpcja, Sic!, Warsaw [in Polish].

  • Almanach centrów handlowych 2013/14. Available from: http://www.thecity.com.pl/Publikacje/Almanach-Centrow-Handlowych/ Almanach-CH-2013-2014 [accessed: 22.01.2017].

  • Altkorn, J. & Kramer, T., eds., (1998) Leksykon marketingu, PWN, Warsaw [in Polish].

  • Arnold, M. J. & Reynolds, K. E. (2003) Hedonic shopping motivations, Journal of Retailing 79 (2), 77–95.

  • Baudrillard, J. (1998) The consumer society: Myths and structures, SAGE, London.

  • Beddington, N. (1991) Shopping centres: retail development, design, and management, Butterworth Architecture, Oxford.

  • Chase, J. (1991) The role of consumerism in American architecture, Journal of Architectural Education 44 (4), 211-224.

  • Ciechomski W. (2010) Koncentracja handlu w Polsce i jej implikacje dla strategii konkurowania przedsiębiorstw handlowych, Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Ekonomicznego, Poznan [in Polish].

  • Clarke, D. B. (2003) The consumer society and the postmodern city, Routledge, London.

  • Coleman, P. (2006) Shopping environments: evolution, planning and design. Architectural Press, London.

  • Colliers International (2016) Polska Market Insights. Raport Roczny 2016. Available from: http://www.colliers.com/-7media/files/emea/poland/reports/2016/colliers_international_raport_roczny_2016.pdf?la=pl-pl [accessed: 22.01.2017] [in Polish].

  • Czekamy na centra handlowe piątej generacji, 18.02.2008, Rzeczpospolita. Available from: http://www.rp.pl/artykul/94191-Czekamy-na-centra-handlowe-piatej-generacji.html#ap-9 [accessed: 22.01.2017] [in Polish].

  • Davis, T. C. (1991) Theatrical antecedents of the mall that ate down-town, Journal of Popular Culture 24 (4), 1-15.

  • Dennis, Ch. (2005) Objects of desire: consumer behaviour in shopping centre choices, Palgrave Macmillan, London.

  • Dietl, J. (1992) Handel we współczesnej gospodarce, PWE, Warsaw [in Polish].

  • Domałski, T. (2005) Strategie rozwoju handlu, PWE, Warsaw [in Polish].

  • Eppli, M. & Benjamin, J. D. (1994) The Evolution of shopping center research: A review and analysis, Journal of Real Estate Research 9 (1), 5-32.

  • Feinberg RA. & Meoli J. (1991) A brief history of the mall, Advances in Consumer Research, 18, 426-442.

  • Gillette Jr., H. (1985) The evolution of the planned shopping center in suburb and city, Journal of the American Planning Association 51 (4), 449-460.

  • Gruen, V. & Smith, L. (1960) Shopping towns USA: The planning of shopping centers, Reinhold Publishing Corporation, New York.

  • Gruen, V. & Smith, L. P. (1952) Shopping centers: The new building type, Progressive Architecture, 33.

  • Hendershott, P. H., Hendershott, R. J. & Hendershott, T. J. (2001) The future of virtual malls, Real Estate Finance, 18 (1), 25-32.

  • Jałowiecki B. (2005) Przestrzeh ludycznanowe obszary metropolii, Studia Regionalne i Lokalne, 3 (21), 5-19 [in Polish].

  • Jodido, P. (2010) Shopping architecture now!, Taschen America LLC, Los Angeles.

  • Knecht-Tarczewska, M. (2011) Centrum handlowe jako nowoczesny produkt handlowo-usługowy, Zeszyty Naukowe / Uniwersytet Ekonomiczny w Poznaniu, 175, 293-303 [in Polish].

  • Kotler, P. (1994) Marketing Management: Analysis, Planning, Implementation, and Control, Prentice Hall.

  • Krakowski Rynek Nieruchomości (2014). Available from: www.krakow.pl/zalacznik/226583 [accessed: 22.01.2017] [in Polish].

  • Kramer, R. (1996), Ethik des Geldes, Verlag Duncker und Hublot, Berlin [in German].

  • Lillibridge, R. M. (1948) Shopping centers in urban redevelopment, Land Economics, 24 (2), 137-160.

  • Longstreth, R. (1997) City center to regional mall: Architecture, the automobile, and retailing in California, 1920-1950, MIT Press, Cambridge.

  • Makowski, G. (2003) Świątynia konsumpcji, Trio, Warsaw [in Polish].

  • Massagali, M. K. (2000) E-tail vs retail the future of the dowtown regional shopping mall, Massachusetts Instytute of Technology, Cambridge.

  • Mesher, L. (2010) Basics interior design: Retail design, AVA Publishing, Lausanne.

  • Mikołajczyk, J. (2009) Rozwój centrów handlowych w Polsce, Wielkie miasta, aglomeracje, metropolie, Zeszyty Naukowe Uniwersytetu Szczecińskiego, 529 (30), 138-139 [in Polish].

  • Mikołajczyk, J. (2015) Centra handlowe w Polscestan aktualny i tendencje rozwoju, Handel wewnętrzny w Polsce w latach 2010-2015, IBRKK, Warsaw [in Polish].

  • Mumford, L. (1961) The city in history, Penguin Book Group, London.

  • Mutebi, A. M. (2007) Regulatory responses to large-format transnational retail in south-east Asian cities, Urban Studies, 44 (2), 357-379.

  • Naisbitt, J. (1997) Megatrendy. Dziesięć nowych kierunków zmienia-jących nasze życie, Zysk i S-ka, Poznan [in Polish].

  • Pedreschi, R. (2000) The engineer’s contribution to contemporary architecture: Eladio Dieste, Thomas Telford Publishing, London.

  • Płaziak, M. & Szymańska, A. I. (2017) Regression or development of the local commercial and service activities in the oldest part of Nowa Huta?, Entrepreneurship-Education, 13, 228-243.

  • Pokorska, B. & Maleszyk, E. (2002) Koncentracja i integracja w handlu wewnętrznym, PWE, Warsaw [in Polish].

  • Polska Rada Centrów Handlowych (2015) PRCH Retail Research Forum. Raport II połowa 2015. Available from: prch.org.pl/pl/baza-wiedzy/24-retail-research-forum/16-raport-prch-rrf-ii-pol-2015 [accessed: 22.01.2017] [in Polish].

  • Redstone, L. G. (1973) New dimensions in shopping centers and stores, McGraw-Hill, New York.

  • Rochmińska, A. (2012) Centra handlowemiejsca spgdzania czasu wolnego przez Lodzian, Acta Universitatis Lodziensis. Folia Geographica Socio-Oeconomica, 11, 207-217 [in Polish].

  • Setkowicz, P. (2008) Second Krakow kontra Bonarka City Center, Czasopismo Techniczne, 4-A (9), 135-141.

  • Sit, J., Merrilees, B. & Birch, D. (2003) Entertainment-seeking shopping centre patrons: The missing segments, International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management, 31 (2), 80-94.

  • Solal, J. L. (1998) Shopping centers: The megatrends, International Council of Shopping Centers, New York.

  • Staeheli, L. A. & Mitchell, D. (2006) USA’s destiny? Regulating space and creating community in American shopping malls, Urban Studies, 43 (5-6), 977-992.

  • Sternquist, B. (1997) International expansion of US retailers, International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management, 25(8), 262-268.

  • Tubridy, M. 2006 Defining trends in shopping center history. A member perspective, Research Review, 13, 1.

  • Twardzik, M. (2014) Typologia i znaczenie centrów handlowych dla miast województwa śląskiego, Studia Miejskie, 16, 129-145 [in Polish].

  • Wilk, W. (2003) Między zakupami a rozrywkąnowe znaczenie centrum handlowego, Prace i Studia Geograficzne, 32, 205-224 [in Polish].

  • Yue-min, N. (1984) An approach to shopping centre location of Shanghai’s urban area, Acta Geographica Sinica, 51(2), 163-172.

  • Zipser, W. (2010) Metody prognozowania struktur handlowo-usłu-gowych w metropoliach na podstawie modelu podróży o celu usługowym, Czasopismo Techniczne. Architektura, 1-A(3), 149-161 [in Polish].

Internet sources

Najlepsze galerie: http://najlepszegalerie.pl/warszawa/centrum,handlowe,panorama [accessed: 22.01.2017]

Footnotes

1

GLA (Gross Leasable Area). GLA is the area used directly for direct commercial purposes and auxiliary premises used by individual lessees for administrative purposes, staff rooms, warehouses, reception desks, halls, staircases, public toilets.

2

The definition provided by the International Council of Shopping Centres (a global organisation active in the shopping centres sector) is also used by the Polish Shopping Centres Board.

*

Examples from the World: New Century Global Center (China), Mall of America /MOA (USA), West Edmonton Mall (Canada), Mall of Asia (the Philippines), Mall of Emirates (Dubai)

3

Bonarka City Center offers 240 stores/shops, service points and catering facilities.

4

The survey was conducted in the following places: Wojkowice, Szczyrk, Wilamowice, Imielin, Chełm Śląski, Goleszów, Skoczów, Kruszyna, Olsztyn, Toszek, Rudziniec, Jastrzębie-Zdrój, Kłobuck, Wręczyca Wielka, Koszęcin, Woźniki, Orzesze, Ornontowice, Myszków, Koziegłowy, Pszczyna, Suszec, Racibórz, Kornowac, Nędza, Tworóg, Tarnowskie Góry, Gorzyce, Wodzisław Śląski, Zawiercie, Żywiec, Ślemień.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Aldridge, A. (2006) Konsumpcja, Sic!, Warsaw [in Polish].

  • Almanach centrów handlowych 2013/14. Available from: http://www.thecity.com.pl/Publikacje/Almanach-Centrow-Handlowych/ Almanach-CH-2013-2014 [accessed: 22.01.2017].

  • Altkorn, J. & Kramer, T., eds., (1998) Leksykon marketingu, PWN, Warsaw [in Polish].

  • Arnold, M. J. & Reynolds, K. E. (2003) Hedonic shopping motivations, Journal of Retailing 79 (2), 77–95.

  • Baudrillard, J. (1998) The consumer society: Myths and structures, SAGE, London.

  • Beddington, N. (1991) Shopping centres: retail development, design, and management, Butterworth Architecture, Oxford.

  • Chase, J. (1991) The role of consumerism in American architecture, Journal of Architectural Education 44 (4), 211-224.

  • Ciechomski W. (2010) Koncentracja handlu w Polsce i jej implikacje dla strategii konkurowania przedsiębiorstw handlowych, Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Ekonomicznego, Poznan [in Polish].

  • Clarke, D. B. (2003) The consumer society and the postmodern city, Routledge, London.

  • Coleman, P. (2006) Shopping environments: evolution, planning and design. Architectural Press, London.

  • Colliers International (2016) Polska Market Insights. Raport Roczny 2016. Available from: http://www.colliers.com/-7media/files/emea/poland/reports/2016/colliers_international_raport_roczny_2016.pdf?la=pl-pl [accessed: 22.01.2017] [in Polish].

  • Czekamy na centra handlowe piątej generacji, 18.02.2008, Rzeczpospolita. Available from: http://www.rp.pl/artykul/94191-Czekamy-na-centra-handlowe-piatej-generacji.html#ap-9 [accessed: 22.01.2017] [in Polish].

  • Davis, T. C. (1991) Theatrical antecedents of the mall that ate down-town, Journal of Popular Culture 24 (4), 1-15.

  • Dennis, Ch. (2005) Objects of desire: consumer behaviour in shopping centre choices, Palgrave Macmillan, London.

  • Dietl, J. (1992) Handel we współczesnej gospodarce, PWE, Warsaw [in Polish].

  • Domałski, T. (2005) Strategie rozwoju handlu, PWE, Warsaw [in Polish].

  • Eppli, M. & Benjamin, J. D. (1994) The Evolution of shopping center research: A review and analysis, Journal of Real Estate Research 9 (1), 5-32.

  • Feinberg RA. & Meoli J. (1991) A brief history of the mall, Advances in Consumer Research, 18, 426-442.

  • Gillette Jr., H. (1985) The evolution of the planned shopping center in suburb and city, Journal of the American Planning Association 51 (4), 449-460.

  • Gruen, V. & Smith, L. (1960) Shopping towns USA: The planning of shopping centers, Reinhold Publishing Corporation, New York.

  • Gruen, V. & Smith, L. P. (1952) Shopping centers: The new building type, Progressive Architecture, 33.

  • Hendershott, P. H., Hendershott, R. J. & Hendershott, T. J. (2001) The future of virtual malls, Real Estate Finance, 18 (1), 25-32.

  • Jałowiecki B. (2005) Przestrzeh ludycznanowe obszary metropolii, Studia Regionalne i Lokalne, 3 (21), 5-19 [in Polish].

  • Jodido, P. (2010) Shopping architecture now!, Taschen America LLC, Los Angeles.

  • Knecht-Tarczewska, M. (2011) Centrum handlowe jako nowoczesny produkt handlowo-usługowy, Zeszyty Naukowe / Uniwersytet Ekonomiczny w Poznaniu, 175, 293-303 [in Polish].

  • Kotler, P. (1994) Marketing Management: Analysis, Planning, Implementation, and Control, Prentice Hall.

  • Krakowski Rynek Nieruchomości (2014). Available from: www.krakow.pl/zalacznik/226583 [accessed: 22.01.2017] [in Polish].

  • Kramer, R. (1996), Ethik des Geldes, Verlag Duncker und Hublot, Berlin [in German].

  • Lillibridge, R. M. (1948) Shopping centers in urban redevelopment, Land Economics, 24 (2), 137-160.

  • Longstreth, R. (1997) City center to regional mall: Architecture, the automobile, and retailing in California, 1920-1950, MIT Press, Cambridge.

  • Makowski, G. (2003) Świątynia konsumpcji, Trio, Warsaw [in Polish].

  • Massagali, M. K. (2000) E-tail vs retail the future of the dowtown regional shopping mall, Massachusetts Instytute of Technology, Cambridge.

  • Mesher, L. (2010) Basics interior design: Retail design, AVA Publishing, Lausanne.

  • Mikołajczyk, J. (2009) Rozwój centrów handlowych w Polsce, Wielkie miasta, aglomeracje, metropolie, Zeszyty Naukowe Uniwersytetu Szczecińskiego, 529 (30), 138-139 [in Polish].

  • Mikołajczyk, J. (2015) Centra handlowe w Polscestan aktualny i tendencje rozwoju, Handel wewnętrzny w Polsce w latach 2010-2015, IBRKK, Warsaw [in Polish].

  • Mumford, L. (1961) The city in history, Penguin Book Group, London.

  • Mutebi, A. M. (2007) Regulatory responses to large-format transnational retail in south-east Asian cities, Urban Studies, 44 (2), 357-379.

  • Naisbitt, J. (1997) Megatrendy. Dziesięć nowych kierunków zmienia-jących nasze życie, Zysk i S-ka, Poznan [in Polish].

  • Pedreschi, R. (2000) The engineer’s contribution to contemporary architecture: Eladio Dieste, Thomas Telford Publishing, London.

  • Płaziak, M. & Szymańska, A. I. (2017) Regression or development of the local commercial and service activities in the oldest part of Nowa Huta?, Entrepreneurship-Education, 13, 228-243.

  • Pokorska, B. & Maleszyk, E. (2002) Koncentracja i integracja w handlu wewnętrznym, PWE, Warsaw [in Polish].

  • Polska Rada Centrów Handlowych (2015) PRCH Retail Research Forum. Raport II połowa 2015. Available from: prch.org.pl/pl/baza-wiedzy/24-retail-research-forum/16-raport-prch-rrf-ii-pol-2015 [accessed: 22.01.2017] [in Polish].

  • Redstone, L. G. (1973) New dimensions in shopping centers and stores, McGraw-Hill, New York.

  • Rochmińska, A. (2012) Centra handlowemiejsca spgdzania czasu wolnego przez Lodzian, Acta Universitatis Lodziensis. Folia Geographica Socio-Oeconomica, 11, 207-217 [in Polish].

  • Setkowicz, P. (2008) Second Krakow kontra Bonarka City Center, Czasopismo Techniczne, 4-A (9), 135-141.

  • Sit, J., Merrilees, B. & Birch, D. (2003) Entertainment-seeking shopping centre patrons: The missing segments, International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management, 31 (2), 80-94.

  • Solal, J. L. (1998) Shopping centers: The megatrends, International Council of Shopping Centers, New York.

  • Staeheli, L. A. & Mitchell, D. (2006) USA’s destiny? Regulating space and creating community in American shopping malls, Urban Studies, 43 (5-6), 977-992.

  • Sternquist, B. (1997) International expansion of US retailers, International Journal of Retail and Distribution Management, 25(8), 262-268.

  • Tubridy, M. 2006 Defining trends in shopping center history. A member perspective, Research Review, 13, 1.

  • Twardzik, M. (2014) Typologia i znaczenie centrów handlowych dla miast województwa śląskiego, Studia Miejskie, 16, 129-145 [in Polish].

  • Wilk, W. (2003) Między zakupami a rozrywkąnowe znaczenie centrum handlowego, Prace i Studia Geograficzne, 32, 205-224 [in Polish].

  • Yue-min, N. (1984) An approach to shopping centre location of Shanghai’s urban area, Acta Geographica Sinica, 51(2), 163-172.

  • Zipser, W. (2010) Metody prognozowania struktur handlowo-usłu-gowych w metropoliach na podstawie modelu podróży o celu usługowym, Czasopismo Techniczne. Architektura, 1-A(3), 149-161 [in Polish].

  • Najlepsze galerie: http://najlepszegalerie.pl/warszawa/centrum,handlowe,panorama [accessed: 22.01.2017]

OPEN ACCESS

Journal + Issues

Search