Bipolar Items

Open access


This article asserts that the Japanese wide-scope mo ‘even’ in simple sentences are bipolar items (BPIs) antilicensed or forbidden by negation and licensed in a non-monotonic (NM) environment. BPIs share the features of negative polarity items (NPIs) as well as positive polarity items (PPIs). The Dutch ooit ‘ever’, the Serbo-Croatian i-series ‘and/even’, and the Hungarian is-series ‘and/even’ are antilicensed by clausemate negation and licensed by extraclausal negation (van der Wouden, 1997; Progovac, 1994; Szabolcsi, 2002) or non-monotonic negative (and positive, for Serbo-Croatian) emotive predicates. Adding an NPI rescues BPIs in uncomfortable clausemate negation.

ARONOFF, M., 1976. Word formation in generative grammar. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.

ASHER, N., 1987. A typology for attitude verbs and their anaphoric properties. Linguistics and Philosophy, vol.10, pp.125-197.

BAKER, C. L.,1970. Double negatives. Linguistic Inquiry, vol.1, pp.169-186.

FÂLÂUS, A., 2014. (Partially) Free choice of alternatives. Linguistics and Philosophy, vol.37, pp.121-173.

FAUCONNIER, G., 1975a. Polarity and the scale principle. In: CLS 11, pp. 188-199.

FAUCONNIER, G., 1975b. Pragmatic scales and logical structure. Linguistic Inquiry, vol.6, pp. 353-375.

von FINTEL, K., 1999. NPI licensing, Strawson entailment, and context dependency. Journal of Semantics, vol.16, pp.97-148.

HEIM, I., 1992. Presupposition projection and the semantics of attitude verbs. Journal of Semantics, vol.9, pp.183-221.

HOEKSEMA, J., 1996. In days, weeks, months, years, ages: A class of negative polarity items. Ms.

HOEKSEMA, J.,1998. On the (non)loss of polarity sensitivity. In: Historical Linguistics 1995, vol. 2: Germanic Linguistics. Amsterdam: John Benjamins, pp.101-114.

JACKENDOFF, R. S., 1972. Semantic interpretation in generative grammar. Cambridge: MIT Press.

KARTTUNEN, L. and PETERS, S., 1979. Conventional implicature. In: Syntax and Semantics, vol. 11. Presupposition. Academic Press.

KATO, Y., 1985. Negative sentences in Japanese. Sophia Linguistica, vol.14, pp.1-229.

KATO, Y., 2000. Interpretive asymmetries of negation. In: Negation and Polarity: Syntactic and Semantic Perspectives. Oxford: Oxford University Press, pp. 62-87.

LADUSAW, W. A., 1979. Polarity sensitivity as inherent scope relations. Ph.D. diss., University of Texas, Austin.

LAMBRECHT, K., 1994. Information structure and sentence form. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

NAM, S., 1994. Another type of negative polarity item. In: Dynamics, polarity, and quantification. Stanford: CSLI, pp.3-15.

NISHIGUCHI, S. 2003. Non-monotonic Negativity. In D. H. Ji et al. eds., Proceedings of PACLIC 17. Sentosa, Singapore: COLIPS, pp. 204-215.

NISHIGUCHI, S. 2004. Five Types of Affective Contexts: Nonmonotonic NPI Licensers. In N. Adams et al. eds., CLS 40-1. Chicago: The Chicago Linguistic Society, pp. 249-264.

NUMATA, Y., 2000. Toritate [focus]. In: S. Kinsui, M. Kudo and Y. Numata, eds. Toki, hitei to toritate. Tokyo: Iwanami, pp.151-216.

PROGOVAC, L., 1994. Negative and positive polarity: A binding approach. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press

ROOTH, M., 1985. Association with Focus. PhD Thesis, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, GLSA Publications.

SADANOBU, T., 1997. Shinteki prosesu kara mita toritateshi te, demo, ni-hongo no shudai to toritate. Tokyo: Kuroshio, pp.227-260.

SZABOLCSI, A., 2002. Hungarian disjunctions and positive polarity. In: Approaches to Hungarian, vol. 8, Budapest: Akadémiai Kiadó.

van der WOUDEN, T., 1994. Negative contexts. PhD thesis, University of Groningen.

van der WOUDEN, T., 1997. Negative contexts: Collocation, polarity and multiple negation. London: Routledge.

WATANABE, A., 2004. The genesis of negative concord: Syntax and morphology of negative doubling. Linguistic Inquiry, vol.35, pp.559-612.

YAMAMORI, Y., 2015. Perspective shift-to kongo waho [Perspective Shift and Blended Speech in Japanese]. Tokyo: Hitsuji Shobo.

YOSHIMURA, A., 1999. Hitei kyokusei gensho [Negative Polarity Phenomena]. Tokyo: Eihosha.

ZWARTS, F., 1996. A hierarchy of negative expressions. In: H. Wansing, ed. Negation: A notion in focus. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter, pp.169-194.

ZWARTS, F., 1998. Three types of polarity. In: F. Hamm and E. Hinrichs, eds. Plurality and quantification. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic, pp.177-238.

Journal Information

CiteScore 2017: 0.43

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2017: 0.217
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2017: 0.655


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 122 122 9
PDF Downloads 57 57 6