Issues relating to the efficient application of passive solar protection in multi-family residential buildings

  • 1 Institute of Urban Planning, Faculty of Architecture, Cracow University of Technology
  • 2 Faculty of Architecture, University of Ecology and Management in Warsaw
  • 3 Department of Environmental Design, Faculty of Architecture, Gdańsk University of Technology


The following article is intended to discuss the issues concerning the introduction of passive measures aimed at improving solar protection in multi-family buildings. A system of classifying these methods into two groups of solutions (architectural and material-building) was applied. The first group includes issues concerning facade design, the spatial features of which (such as loggias, balconies and other overhangs) can be treated as one of the solar protection methods. The authors’ own studies are presented and expressed in a sequence of formulas. The formulas enable assessment of the effectiveness of the above elements, depending on external conditions. As far as the second group is concerned, material-construction solutions for building facades and roofs are discussed. The solutions mentioned include solar-control glazing, spatial shading elements (such as venetian blinds, roller blinds), roof and façade vegetation, and the thermal mass of the building. The essence of the functioning of the analysed solutions in relation to the characteristic functional specificity of multi-family buildings is discussed. Problematic areas of application of the above methods are indicated. As shown in the study, problematic areas may include a group of utilitarian-operating, economic and aesthetic issues, in the case of which the use of passive solutions encounters limitations. In conclusion, the possibilities for alleviating these limitations are highlighted. The authors’ own solutions presented in the following paper can contribute to energy savings and may thus prove beneficial for environmental reasons, thereby serving the aims of sustainable development.

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