Medieval Multilingualism in Poland: Creating a Corpus of Greater Poland Court Oaths (Rotha)

Open access

Abstract

In this paper we introduce the research plan for the preparation of a searchable electronic repository of the earliest extant legal oaths from medieval Poland drawing on the expertise in historical corpus-building developed for the history of English. The oaths survive in the overwhelmingly Latin land books from the period between 1386 and 1446 for six localities Greater Poland, in which the land courts operated: Poznań, Kościan, Pyzdry, Gniezno, Konin and Kalisz. A diplomatic edition of the oaths was published in five volumes by Polish historical linguists (Kowalewicz & Kuraszkiewicz 1959–1966). The edition is the only comprehensive resource of considerable scope (over 6300 oaths from the years 1386–1446) for the study of the earliest attestations of the Polish language beyond glosses. Recognising some limitations, but most of all its unparalleled coverage of the coexistence of Latin and the vernacular, the ROThA project embarks on transforming the edition into an open up-to-date digital resource. We thus aim to facilitate research into the history of Polish and Latin as well as of the legal system and the related social and linguistic issues of the period.

Adamska, Anna. 2006. Investigating multilingualism in medieval East Central Europe: Possibilities and limitations. http://www.wun.ac.uk/external/multilingualism/seminar_archive/06_07_program/adamska.html (25 May, 2014)

Adamska, Anna. 2007. Orality and literacy in medieval Central Europe: Final prolegomena. In Else Mundal & Jonas Wellendorf (eds.), Oral art forms and their passage into writing, 69–84. Copenhagen: Museum Tusculanum Press.

Adamska, Anna. 2013. Latin and three vernaculars in East Central Europe from the point of view of the history of social communication. In Mary Garrison, Arpad Órban & Marco Mostert (eds.), Spoken and written language: Relations between Latin and the vernacular languages in the earlier Middle Ages, 325–364. Turnhout: Brepols.

Bartoszewicz, Agnieszka. 1999. Mieszczanie litterati w polskim mieście późnego średniowiecza. [Litterati burghers in late medieval Polish towns.] Kwartalnik Historyczny 56.4. 3–19.

Berend, Nora, Przemysław Urbańczyk & Przemysław Wiszewski. 2013. Central Europe in the high Middle Ages: Bohemia, Hungary and Poland c. 900-c.1300. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Berry, David M. 2013. Understanding digital humanities. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

Bogucka, Maria & Henryk Samsonowicz. 1986. Dzieje miast i mieszczaństwa w Polsce przedrozbiorowej. [History of towns and townspeople in pre-partition Poland.] Wrocław: Zakład Narodowy im. Ossolińskich.

Borowiec, Karolina. 2013. Wokół Rot kościańskich. O specyficznej sytuacji edytorskiej. [Kościan court oaths. On their editorial status.] Kwartalnik Językoznawczy 4. 2–11.

Brückner, Aleksander. 1927. Słownik etymologiczny języka polskiego. Kraków: Krakowska Spółka Wydawnicza.

Bullock, Barbara E. & Almeida Jacqueline Toribio. 2009. Themes in the study of code-switching. In Barbara E. Bullock & Almeida Jacqueline Toribio (eds.), The Cambridge handbook of linguistic code-switching, 1–17. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Burdick, Anne, Johanna Drucker, Peter Lunefeld, Todd Presner & Jeffrey Schnapp. 2012. Digital_humanities. Cambridge, Mass.: The MIT Press.

Busby, Keith & Christopher Kleinhenz (eds.). 2011. Medieval multilingualism: The Francophone world and its neighbours. Turnout: Brepols.

Claridge, Claudia. 2008. Historical corpora. In Anke Lüdeling & Merja Kytö (eds.), Corpus linguistics: An international handbook, vol. 3, 242–259. Berlin & New York: Mouton de Gruyter.

Culpeper, Jonathan & Merja Kytö. 2010. Early modern English dialogues: Spoken interaction as writing. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Danet, Brenda. 1997. Speech, writing and performativity: An evolutionary view of the history of constitutive ritual. In Britt-Louise Gunnarsson, Per Linell & Bengt Nordberg (eds.), The construction of professional discourse, 13–41. Harlow: Longman.

Danet, Brenda & Bryna Bogoch. 1992. ‘Whoever alters this may God turn his face from him on the day of judgement’: Curses in Anglo-Saxon legal documents. Journal of American Folklore 105. 132–165.

Danet, Brenda & Bryna Bogoch. 1994. Orality, literacy, and performativity in Anglo-Saxon wills. In John Gibbons (ed.), Language and the law, 100–135. London: Longman.

Davies, Mark. 2002-. corpus.byu.edu. http://corpus.byu.edu/ (January, 2016.)

Declercq, Georges, Marco Mostert, Walter Ysabaert & Anna Adamska (eds.). 2013. New approaches to medieval urban literacy. Brussels: Koninklijke Vlaamse Academie van Belgie voor Wetenschappen en Kunsten.

Ferguson, Charles A. 1959. Diglossia. Word 15. 325–340.

Gardner-Chloros, Penelope. 2009. Code-switching. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Grund, Peter J. 2011. Scribes and scribal practice. In Merja Kytö, Peter J. Grund & Terry Walker (eds.), Testifying to language and life in early modern England, 147–180. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

Grund, Peter J. 2012. Textual history as language history? Text categories, corpora, editions, and the witness depositions from the Salem witch trials. Studia Neophilologica 84. 40–54.

Gumperz, John. 1982. Discourse strategies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Haugen, Einar. 1973. Bilingualism, language contact and immigrant languages in the United States: A research report. 1956–70. In Thomas Sebeok (ed.), Current trends in linguistics, vol. 10, 505–591. The Hague: Mouton.

Hinneburg, Alexander, Heikki Mannila, Samuli Kaislaniemi, Terttu Nevalainen & Helena Raumolin-Brunberg. 2007. How to handle small samples: Bootstrap and Bayesian methods in the analysis of language change. Literary and Linguistic Computing 22.2. 137–150.

Honkapohja, Alpo, Samuli Kaislaniemi & Ville Marttila. 2009. Digital editions for corpus linguistics: Representing manuscript reality in electronic corpora. In Andreas H. Jucker, Daniel Schreier & Mariane Hundt (eds.), Corpora: Pragmatics and discourse, 451–475. Amsterdam: Rodopi.

Ihnatowicz, Ireneusz, Antoni Mączak, Benedykt Zientara & Janusz Żarnowski. 2005. Społeczeństwo polskie od X do XX wieku. [Polish society from the 10th to the 20th century.] 5th edn. Warszawa: Książka i Wiedza.

Koester, Almut. 2010. Building small specialized corpora. In Anne O’Keeffe & Michael McCarthy (eds.), The Routledge handbook of corpus linguistics, 66–79. London: Routledge.

Kopaczyk, Joanna. 2013a. Code-switching in the records of a Scottish brotherhood in early modern Poland-Lithuania. Poznań Studies in Contemporary Linguistics 49.3. 281–319.

Kopaczyk, Joanna. 2013b. Latin and Scots versions of Scottish medieval burgh laws (Leges Quatuor Burgorum). Scottish Language 30. 1–17.

Kopaczyk, Joanna. (forthcoming). Administrative multilingualism on the page in early modern Poland: In search of a framework for written code-switching. In Laura Wright, Päivi Pahta & Janne Skaffari (eds.), Multilingual practices in language history: New perspectives. Berlin: Mouton.

Kowalewicz, Henryk & Władysław Kuraszkiewicz (eds.). 1959–1981, Wielkopolskie roty sądowe XIV–XV wieku [The Greater Poland court oaths of the 14th-15th century], vol. 1, Roty poznańskie [The Poznań oaths], vol. 2, Roty pyzdrskie [The Pyzdry oaths], vol. 3, Roty kościańskie [The Kościan oaths], vol. 4, Roty kaliskie [The Kalisz oaths], vol. 5, A, Roty gnieźnieńskie [The Gniezno oaths], B, Roty konińskie [The Konin oaths]. Warszawa, Poznań, Wrocław, Kraków & Gdańsk: Państwowe Wydawnictwo Naukowe.

Kosman, Marceli. 2014. The Polish res publica of national and ethnic minorities from the Piasts to the 20th century. Przegląd Zachodni 2. 7–22.

Kryk-Kastovsky, Barbara. 2006. Historical courtroom discourse. Journal of Historical Pragmatics 7.2. 163–179.

Kucała, Marian. 1974. Łacińska fleksja rzeczowników polskich w tekstach średniowiecznych. [Latin inflections of Polish nouns in medieval texts] In Jerzy Kuryłowicz & Jan Safarewicz (eds.), Studia indoeuropejskie [Indo-European studies], 91–96. Wrocław: Ossolineum.

Kurtz, Patricia Deery & Linda Ehrsam Voigts. 2011. The significance of now-dispersed Bute 13: A mixed-language scientific manuscript. In Päivi Pahta & Andreas H. Jucker (eds.), Communicating early English manuscripts, 38–54. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Kuźmicki, Marcin. 2015. Wydanie wielkopolskich rot sądowych w świetle najnowszych ustaleń badawczych. [The edition of Lesser Poland court oaths in the light of current research.] LingVaria 20. 205–219.

Kytö, Merja. 2012. New perspectives, theories and methods: Corpus linguistics. In Alex Bergs & Laurel Brinton (eds.), English historical linguistics: An international handbook, vol. 2, 1509–1531. Berlin: De Gruyter Mouton.

Kytö, Merja & Jonathan Culpeper. 2006. A Corpus of English Dialogues 1560-1760. Lancaster University.

Lass, Roger. 2004. Ut custodiant litteras: Editions, corpora and witnesshood. In Marina Dossena & Roger Lass (eds.), Methods and data in English historical dialectology, 21–48. Bern: Peter Lang.

Machan, Tim William. 2011. The visual pragmatics of code-switching in late Middle English literature. In Herbert Schendl & Laura Wright (eds.), Code-switching in Early English, 303–333. Berlin: de Gruyter.

Makarova, Olga. 2014. Język polski ksiąg sądowych XVI–XVII w. z Ukrainy Prawobrzeżnej. Leksyka prawnicza. [The language of Polish court books of the 16th and 17th c. in the Ukraine. The legal lexicon.] Ph.D. dissertation. Uniwersytet Warszawski.

Marttila, Ville. 2014. Creating digital editions for corpus linguistics: The case of Potage Dyvers, a family of six Middle English recipe collections. Ph.D. dissertation. University of Helsinki.

Mika, Tomasz. 2012. “Kazania świętokrzyskie” – od rękopisu do zrozumienia tekstu. [The Holy Cross Sermons – from manuscript to understanding the text.] Poznań: Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM.

Mostert, Marco & Anna Adamska (eds.). 2014. Writing and the administration of medieval towns: Medieval urban literacy I. (Utrecht Studies in Medieval Literacy 27.) Utrecht: Brepols Publishers.

Myers-Scotton, Carol. 1992. Comparing codeswitching and borrowing. In Carol M. Eastman (ed.), Codeswitching, 19–39. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.

Pahta, Päivi. 2004. Code-switching in medieval medical writing. In Irma Taavitsainen & Päivi Pahta (eds.), Medical and scientific writing in late medieval English, 73–99. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Pahta, Päivi. 2011. Code-switching in Early Modern English medical writing. In Irma Taavitsainen & Päivi Pahta (eds.), Medical writing in Early Modern English, 115–132. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Pahta, Päivi. 2012. Code-switching in English of the Middle Ages. In Terttu Nevalainen & Elizabeth C. Traugott (eds.), The Oxford handbook of the history of English, 528–537. New York: Oxford University Press.

Pahta, Päivi & Arja Nurmi. 2011. Multilingual discourse in the domain of religion in medieval and early modern England: A corpus approach to research on historical codeswitching. In Herbert Schendl & Laura Wright (eds.), Code-switching in early English, 219–251. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

Pokorny, Julius. 1959. Indogermanisches etymologisches Wörterbuch. Bern: Francke.

Poplack, Shana. 2004. Code-switching. In Urlich Ammon, Norbert Dittmar, Klaus J. Mattheier & Peter Trudgill (eds.), Sociolinguistics. An international handbook of language and society, 2nd edn. 589–596. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

Romaine, Suzanne. 1995. Bilingualism. Oxford: Blackwell.

Samsonowicz, Henryk. 1993a. Grupy etniczne w Polsce XV wieku. [Ethnic groups in 15th century Poland.] In Jacek Chorobaczyński, Andrzej Jurecki & Michał Śliwa (eds.), Ojczyzna bliższa i dalsza [Homeland close and distant], 461–469. Kraków: Wydawnictwo Secesja.

Samsonowicz, Henryk. 1993b. Roty sądowe w Polsce jako źródło do dziejów kultury. [Court oaths in Poland as a historical source.] In Teresa Michałowska (ed.), Literatura i kultura późnego średniowiecza [Literature and culture of the high Middle Ages], 153–159. Warszawa: Instytut Badań Literackich.

Samsonowicz, Henryk. 2014. Studia z dziejów miast w średniowieczu. [Studies in the history of medieaval towns.] Poznań: Wydawnictwo Naukowe UAM.

Schendl, Herbert. 2010. Multilingualism, code-switching, and language contact in historical sociolinguistics. In Juan Manuel Hernandez-Campoy & Juan Camilo Conde-Silvestre (eds.), The handbook of historical sociolinguistics, 520–533. Oxford: Blackwell.

Schendl, Herbert & Laura Wright. 2011. Code switching in early English: Historical background and methodological and theoretical issues. In Herbert Schendl & Laura Wright (eds.), Code-switching in early English, 15–45. Berlin: Walter de Gruyter.

Schmied, Josef, Claudia Claridge & Rainer Siemund. 1999. The Lampeter corpus of Early Modern English tracts. In Knut Hofland, Anne Lindebjerg, Jørn Thunestvedt (eds.), (CD-ROM), 2nd edn. The HIT Centre, University of Bergen, Norway.

Sebba, Mark. 2012. Researching and theorising multilingual texts. In Mark Sebba, Shahrzad Mahootian & Carla Jonsson (eds.), Language mixing and code-switching in writing. Approaches to mixed-language written discourse, 1–26. London: Routledge.

Sedlar, Jean. W. 1994. East Central Europe in the Middle Ages, 1000–1500. Washington: University of Washington Press.

Sipma, Pieter (ed.). 1927. Oudfriesche Oorkonden, vol. 1. (Oudfriese Taal- en Rechtsbronnen.) ’s Gravenhage: M. Nijhoff.

SJP = Doroszewski, Witold (ed). 1958–1969. Słownik języka polskiego. [The dictionary of the Polish language.] Warszawa: PWN. http://sjp.pwn.pl/doroszewski.

Szczepankowska, Irena. 2004. Język prawny I Rzeczypospolitej w “Zbiorze praw sądowych” Andrzeja Zamoyskiego, cz. I: Pojęcia prawne, cz. II: Wypowiedzi normatywne. [Legal language of the Republic of Poland in the “Collection of court laws” by Andrzej Zamoyski. Part 1: Legal terms, Part 2: Normative speech acts.] Białystok: Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Białostockiego.

Taavitsainen, Irma, Peter M. Jones, Päivi Pahta, Turo Hiltunen, Ville Marttila, Maura Ratia, Carla Suhr & Jukka Tyrkkö. 2011. Medical texts in 1500–1700 and the Corpus of Early Modern English Medical Texts. In Irma Taavitsainen & Päivi Pahta (eds.), Medical writing in Early Modern English, 9–29. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Terras, Melissa, Julianne Nyhan & Edward Vanhoute (eds.). 2013. Defining digital humanities. Farnham: Ashgate.

Trawińska, Maria. 2014. Rękopis najstarszej poznańskiej księgi ziemskiej. Warszawa & Poznań: Wydawnictwo Rys.

Versloot, Arjen P. & Elzbieta Adamczyk. 2014. Corpus size and composition: Evidence from the inflectional morphology of nouns in Old English and Old Frisian. In Rolf H. Bremmer Jr., Stephen Laker & Oebele Vries (eds), Directions for Old Frisian philology. (Amsterdamer Beiträge zur älteren Germanistik 73.) 539–569. Amsterdam & New York: Brill/Rodopi.

Watkins, Calvert. 2000. The American heritage dictionary of Indo-European roots. 2nd edn. Boston: Houghton Mifflin Harcourt.

Winford, Donald. 2003. An introduction to contact linguistics. Oxford: Blackwell.

Wiszewski, Przemysław. 2013. The multi-ethnic character of medieval Silesian society and its influence on the region’s cohesion (12th-15th centuries). In Przemysław Wiszewski (ed.), The long formation of the region Silesia (c. 1000-1526), 167–192. Wrocław: Wydawnictwo eBooki.

Wright, Laura. 1992. Macaronic writing in a London archive, 1380-1480. In Matti Rissanen et al. (eds.), History of Englishes. New methods and interpretations in historical linguistics, 762–770. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Wright, Laura. 1994. Early Modern London business English. In Dieter Kastovsky (ed.), Studies in Early Modern English, 449–465. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Wright, Laura. 1995. A hypothesis on the structure of macaronic business writing. In Jacek Fisiak (ed.), Medieval dialectology, 309–321. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Wright, Laura. 1998. Mixed-language business writing: Five hundred years of code-switching. In Ernst Hakon Jahr (ed.), Language change: Advances in historical sociolinguistics, 99–118. Berlin: Mouton de Gruyter.

Wright, Laura. 2001. Models of language mixing: Code-switching versus semicommunication in medieval Latin and Middle English accounts. In Dieter Kastovsky & Arthur Mettinger (eds.), Language contact in the history of English, 363–376. Frankfurt: Peter Lang.

Wünsch, Thomas. 2008. Deutsche und Slawen im Mittelalter: Beziehungen zu Tschechen, Polen, Südslawen und Russen. Oldenburg: Oldenbourg Wissenschaftsverlag.

Studia Anglica Posnaniensia

The Journal of Adam Mickiewicz University

Journal Information


Cite Score 2018: 0.08

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.1
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.095

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 255 198 15
PDF Downloads 129 119 5