The Relationships between Coaches’ Leadership Styles, Competitive State Anxiety, and Golf Performance in Korean Junior Golfers

Open access


The purpose of this study was to determine whether Korean junior golf coaches’ leadership styles affect athletes’ competitive state anxiety before a game as well as their performance. In the Multidimensional Model of Leadership (MML), Chelladurai and Saleh (1980) identified five aspects of leadership behavior in coaching: training/instruction, democratic behavior, autocratic behavior, social support, and positive feedback. A survey was conducted with junior golfers participating in the 23rd Korean National Middle and High School Championship. Data from 216 questionnaires were used in the analysis. Multiple regression analyses were run on the data, revealing the following results. First, training/instruction and social support of coaches decreased cognitive anxiety before the game, whereas autocratic behavior increased it. Second, training/instruction and positive feedback of coaches increased self-confidence before the game. Third, training/instruction of coaches increased golf performance, whereas autocratic behavior decreased it. Finally, cognitive anxiety of golf athletes was found to reduce golf performance, whereas self-confidence increased it. Consequently, this study may deliver sport administrators and parents with understanding of how coaches’ leadership styles could influence on junior golfers’ psychological state and golf performance.

Burton, D. (1988). Do anxious swimmers swim slower? Re-examining the elusive anxiety-performance relationship. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 10, 45–61.

Bois, J. E., Sarrazin, P. G., Southon, J., & Boiche, J. C. S. (2009). Psychological characteristics and their relation to performance professional golfers. The Sport Psychologist, 23, 252–270.

Caruso, C. M., Dzewaltoski, D. A., Gill, D. L., & McElroy, M. (1990). Psychological changes in competitive state anxiety during noncompetition and competitive success and failure. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 12(1), 6–20.

Chamberlain, S. T., & Hale, B. D. (2007). Competitive state anxiety and self-confidence: Intensity and direction as relative predictors of performance on a golf putting task. Anxiety, Stress & Coping, 20(2), 197–207.

Chelladurai, P. (1993). Leadership. In R. N. Singer, M. Murphy, & L. K. Tennant (Eds.), Handbook on Research on Sport Psychology (pp. 647–671). New York: McMillan.

Chelladurai, O., & Saleh, S. D. (1980). Dimension of leader behavior in sports: Development of a leadership scale. Journal of Sport Psychology, 2, 34–45.

Chun, M. H., & Kwak, E. J. (2007). Sports Psychology for the Sports Leaders. Mapo-gu, Seoul: Bo-Kyung Cultural History.

Doo. M. K., Kim, Y. S., & Lee, H. S. (2002). The effects of competitive state anxiety on performance of badminton players. Research on Physical Fitness, 25(1), 37–45.

Finn, J. (2008). An introduction to using mental skills to enhance performance in golf: Beyond the bounds of positive and negative thinking. International Journal of Sports Science & Coaching, 3(0), 255–269.

Gordon, A. M. D. (1986). Behavioral correlates of coaching effectiveness (Unpublished doctoral dissertation). University of Alberta, Canada.

Han, J. M. (2012). The effects of leadership behavior patterns on the competitive anxiety of taekwondo athletes (Master’s thesis). Sogang University, South Korea.

Hellstrom, J. (2009). Psychological hallmarks of skilled golfers. Sports Medicine, 39(10), 845–855.

Hong, U. P. (2008). An effect of a coaching behavior of Taekwondo master on the competitive states anxiety of players (Master’s thesis). Yong-In University, South Korea.

Im, B. H. (2008). Possible effects of Hockey coaches’ leadership style on players’ satisfaction and performance. (Master’s thesis). Kook-Min University, South Korea.

Jones, J. G., Cale, A., & Kerwin, D. G. (1988). Multidimensional competitive state anxiety and psychomotor performance. Australian Journal of Science and Medicine, 20, 3–7.

Kim, K. H., & Han, K. H. (2004). Golf. Sillim-dong, Gwanak-gu, Seoul, South Korea

Kim, H. B. (2002). A study on current situation and development of the golf industry in Korea. Industrial Science Research Collection of Dissertations, 7(1), 115–126.

Korea Junior Golf Association (2013). Membership. Retrieved from

Krane, V. (1992). Conceptual and methodological considerations in sport anxiety research: From the Inverted-U hypothesis to catastrophe theory. Quest, 44(1), 72–87.

Lan, W. J. (2009). The relationship between athlete’s perception of intercollegiate basketball coach leadership behavior and team cohesiveness in Taiwan (Doctoral dissertation), Taiwan.

Lee, S. Y. (2007). The effect of leadership style of golf coach’s on satisfaction of athletes and performance (Doctoral dissertation). Kyonggi University, South Korea.

Martens, R., Burton, D., Vealey, R., Bump, L., & Smith, D. (1990). The development of the Competitive State Anxiety Inverntory-2 (CSAI-2). In R. Martens, R. S. Vealey, & D. Burton (Eds.), Competitive anxiety in sport (pp. 117–190). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Martens, R., Vealey, R. S., & Burton, D. (1990). Competitive anxiety in sport. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

Morris, L. W., Davis, M. A., & Hutchings, C. H. (1981). Cognitive and emotional components of anxiety: Literature review and revised worry-emotionality scale. Journal of Educational Psychology, 73(4), 541–555.

Rajabi, Z. (2012). Relationship of coach’s leadership style and player performance outcomes. European Journal of Experimental Biology, 2(4), 1134–1136.

Yeom, S. S. (2009). Effect of coaching style on the bowling trainee’s competitive state anxiety. (Master’s thesis). Konkuk University, South Korea.

Weiss, M. R., & Friedrichs, W. D. (1986). The influence of leader behaviors, coach attributes, and institutional variables on performance and satisfaction of collegiate basketball teams. Journal of Sport Psychology, 8, 332–346.

Woodman, T., & Hardy, L. (2003). The relative impact of cognitive anxiety and self-confidence upon sport performance: a meta-analysis. Journal of Sports Sciences, 21, 443–457.

Sport Science Review

The Journal of National Institute for Sport Research

Journal Information

Cited By


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 380 380 31
PDF Downloads 206 206 21