Dancing is an excellent alternative exercise for improving health related physical fitness elements. Dance performance requires support from enhanced physiological requirements necessary for dancers including cardiovascular fitness, muscle flexibility, muscular strength/power. A reduction in muscular strength associate with injury risk and many dancers succumb to problems such as the overtraining syndrome. Improvement in lower body muscular strength appears to have positive effects on aspects of dance performance and injury prevention. The qualities and benefits offered by dancing depend on the dance forms concerned but as a general rule, it improves physical health by developing strength, suppleness, coordination and balance in varying amounts. This literature study showed differences in fitness levels exist between in different dance forms but also in levels of dancers. As in most sports, dancing is a demanding exercise form for all styles dancers, taxing both aerobic and anaerobic processes and develops high levels of muscle tension. Joint mobility and body composition are also important parts of dance fitness. Dance training consists of technique and style training with an aim to increase the skill level of dancers. Furthermore, it needs more investigation whether improved physical fitness has positive effect on dance performance.
Ahearn, E. L. (2006). The Pilates Method and Ballet Technique: Applications in the Dance Studio. Journal of Dance Education, 6(3), 92-99.
Allen, N., & Wyon, M. (2008). Dance medicine: Artist or athlete? SportEXmedicine, 35, 6-9.
Angioi, M. (2010). Evaluation of physical fitness in relation to performance and injuryseverity in contemporary dance. [Thesis]. University of Wolverhampton.
Baldari, C. & Guidetti, L. (2001). Vo2max, ventilatory and anaerobic thresholds in rhythmic gymnasts and young female dancers. Journal of Sports Medicine andPhysical Fitness, 41, 177-182.
Bartholomew, J. B., & Miller, B. M. (2002). Affective responses to an aerobic dance class: The impact of perceived performance. Research Quarterly forExercise and Sport, 73(3), 301-309.
Bennell, K., Khan, K. M., Matthews, B., De Gruyter, M., Cook, E., Holzer, K., & Wark, J.D. (1999). Hip and ankle range of motion and hip muscle strength in young novice female ballet dancers and controls. British Journal of SportsMedicine, 33, 340-346.
Bennell, K. L., Khan, K. M., Matthews, B. L., & Singleton, C. (2001). Changes in hip and ankle range of motion and hip muscle strength in 8-11 year old novice female ballet dancers and controls: a 12 month follow up study. BritishJournal of Sports Medicine, 35, 54-59.
Berardi, G. M. (1994). Dance performance and training. Kinesiology and Medicinefor Dance, 16(1), 53.
Berlet, G. C., Kiebzak, G. M., Dandar, A., Wooten, C., Box, J. H., Anderson, R. B. & Davis, W. H. (2002). Prospective analysis of body composition and sf36 profiles in professional dancers over a 7-month season. Is there a correlation to injury? Journal of Dance Medicine and Science, 6(2), 54-61.
Bosco, B., Luhtanen, P., & Komi, P. V. (1983). A simple method for measurement of mechanical power in jumping. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 50, 273-282.
Bremer, Z. (2007). Dance as a form of exercise. British Journal of General Practice, 166.
Bria, S., Bianco, M., Galvani, C., Palmieri, V., Zeppilli, P., & Faina, M. (2011). Physiological characteristics of elite sportdancers. The Journal of Sports Medicineand Physical Fitness, 51, 194-203.
Brodie, D. A. & Birtwistle, G. E. (1990). Children’s Attitudes to Physical Activity, Exercise, Health and Fitness before and after a Health - related Fitness Measurement Programme. International Journal of Physical Education,27(2), 10-14.
Brown, A. C., Wells, T. J., Schade, M. L., Smith, D. L. & Fehling, P. C. (2007). Effects of plyometric training versus traditional weight training on strength, power, and aesthetic jumping ability in female collegiate dancers. Journal ofDance Medicine and Science, 11(2), 38-44.
Burkhardt, J., & Brennan, C. A. (2012). The effects of recreational dance interventions on the health and wellbeing of children and young people: a systematic review. Arts and Health 4(2), 148-161.
Caldwell, L. (2005). Leisure and health: Why is leisure therapeutic? British Journalof Guidance and Counselling, 33(1), 7-26.
Caspersen, C. J., Powell, K. E., & Christenson, G. M. (1985). Physical activity, exercise, and physical fitness: definitions and distinctions for health-related research. Public Health Reports, 100, 126-131.
Chatfield, S. J., Byrnes, W. C., Lally, D. A. & Rowe, S. (1990). Cross-sectional physiologic profiling of modern dancers. Dance Research Journal, 22(1), 13-19.
Chmelar, R. D., Schultz, B. B. & Ruhling, R. O. (1988). A physiologic profile comparing levels and styles of female dancers. Physician and Sportsmedicine,16(7), 87-96.
Claessens, A. L., Beunen, G. P., Nuyts, M. M., Lefevre, J. A. & Wellens, R. I. (1987). Body structure, somatotype, maturation and motor performance of girls in ballet schooling. The Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness, 27, 310-317.
Clarkson, P. M., Freedson, P. S., Keller, B., Carney, D., & Skrinar, M. (1985). Maximal oxygen uptake, nutritional patterns and body composition of adolescent female ballet dancers. Research Quarterlyf or Exercise and Sport, 56, 180-184.
Cohen, J. L., Segal, K. R., Witriol, I., & McArdle, W. D. (1982). Cardiorespiratorrye sponsest o ballet exercises and the V02max of the elite ballet dancers. Medicineand Science in Sports and Exercise, 14, 212-217.
Coin, A., Sergi, G., Minicuci, N., Giannini, S., Barbiero, E., Manzato, E., (...), & Enzi, G. (2008). Fat-free mass and fat mass reference values by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DEXA) in a 20-80 year-old Italian population. ClinicalNutrition, 27(1), 87-94.
Dahlstrom, P. T., Inasio, E. & Kaijser, L. (1996). Physical fitness effort in dancers: A comparison of four major dance styles. Impulse, 4, 193-209.
Eyigor, S., Karaplot, H., Durmaz, B., Ibisoglu, U., & Cakir, S. (2009). A randomized controlled trial of Turkish folklore dance on the physical performance, balance, depression and quality of life in older women. Archives of Gerontologyand Geriatrics 48(1), 84-8.
Fitt, S. S. (1982). Conditioning for dancers: Investigating some assumptions. Dance Research Journal, 14, 32-38.
Grossman, G. & Wilmerding, M. V. (2000). The effect of conditioning on the height of dancer’s extension in a la seconde. Journal of Dance Medicine andScience, 4(4), 117-21.
Guidetti, L., Emerenziani, G. P., Gallotta, M. C., & Baldari, C. (2007). Effect of warm up on energy cost and energy sources of a ballet dance exercise. European journal of applied physiology, 99, 275-281.
Guidetti, L., Emerenziani, G. P., Gallotta, M. C., Da Silva, S. G., & Baldari, C. (2008). Energy cost and energy sources of a ballet dance exercise in female adolescents with different technical ability. European Journal of Applied Physiology,103, 315-321.
Guidetti, L., Gallotta, M. C., Emerenziani, G. P., & Baldari, C. (2007). Exercise intensities during a ballet lesson in female adolescents with different technical ability. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 28, 736-742.
Gupta, A., Fernihough, B., Bailey, G., Bombeck, P., Clarke, A., & Hopper, D. (2004). An evaluation of differences in hip external rotation strength and range of motion between female dancers and nondancers. British Journal ofSports Medicine, 38, 778-783.
Hamilton, W., Hamilton, L., Marshall P., & Molnar M. (1992). A proﬁle of the musculoskeletal characteristics of elite professional ballet dancers. AmericanJournal of Sports Medicine, 20, 267-273.
Hamilton, D., Aronsen, P., Løken, J. H., Berg, I. M., Skotheim, R., Hopper, D., Clarke, A., & Briffa, N. K. (2006). Dance training intensity at 11-14 years is associated with femoral torsion in classical ballet dancers. British Journal ofSports Medicine, 40, 299-303.
Harley, Y. X. R., Gibson, A. S. C., Harley, E. H., Lambert, M. I., Vaughan, C. L. & Noakes, T. D. (2002). Quadriceps strength and jumping efficiency in dancers. Journal of Dance Medicine and Science, 6(3), 87-94.
Hergenroeder, A. C., Brown, B., & Klish, W. J. (1993). Anthropometric measurements and estimating body composition in ballet dancers. Medicineand Science in Sports and Exercise, 25, 145-150.
Hidayah, G. N. & Syahrul Bariah, A. H. (2011). Eating Attitude, Body Image, Body Composition and Dieting Behaviour among Dancers. Asian Journal ofClinical Nutrition, 3, 92-102.
Hui, E., Tsan-keung, B., Chui B, & Woo, J. (2009). Effects of dance on physical and psychological well-being in older persons. Archives of Gerontology andGeriatrics, 49, e45-e50.
Ignico, A. A., & Mahon, D. A. (1995). The Effects of Physical Fitness Program on Low - Fit Children. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 66, 85-90.
Kadel, N. J., Donaldson-Fletcher, E. A., Gerberg, L. F., & Micheli, L. J. (2005). Anthropometric measurements of young ballet dancers: Examining body composition, puberty, ﬂexibility, and joint range of motion in comparison with non-dancer controls. Journal of Dance Medicine and Science, 9(3-4), 84-90.
Khan, K., Roberts, P., Nattrass, C., Bennell, K., Mayes, S., Way, S., & Wark, J. (1997). Hip and ankle range of motion in elite classical ballet dancers and controls. Clinical Journal of Sport Medicine, 7, 714-779.
Kirkendall, D., & Calabrese, L. (1983). Physiological aspects of dance. Clinics inSports Medicine, 2, 525-37.
Klonova, A., Klonovs, J., Giovanardi, A., & Cicchella, A. (2011).The sport dance athlete: Aerobic-anaerobic capacities and kinematics to improve the performance. Antropomotoryka, 55, 31-37.
Krasnow, D., & Kabbani, M. (1999). Dance science research and the modern dance. Medical Problems of Performing Artists, 14, 16-20.
Koutedakis, Y. & Jamurtas, A. (2004). The dancer as a performing athlete: Physiological considerations. Sports Medicine, 34(10), 651-661.
Koutedakis, Y. (2000). Burnout in dance: The physiological viewpoint. Journal ofDance Medicine and Science, 4(4), 122-127.
Koutedakis, Y., Hukam, H., Metsios, G., Nevill, A., Giakas, G., Jamurtas, A. & Myszkewycz, L. (2007). The effects of three months of aerobic and strength training on selected performance and fitness-related parameters in modern dance students. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 21(3), 808-12.
Koutedakis, Y., Stavropoulos-Kalinoglou, A., & Metsios, G. (2005). The signiﬁcance of muscular strength in dance. Journal of Dance Medicine andScience, 9(1), 29-34.
Krasnow, D. & Kabbani, M. (1999). Dance science research and the modern dancer. Medical Problems of Performing Artists, 14(1), 16-20.
Krasnow, D. H., & Chatfield, S.J. (1996). Dance science and the dance technique class. Impulse, 4, 162-172.
Krasnow, D. H., Chatfield, S. J., Barr, S., Jensen, J. L. & Dufek, J. S. (1997). Imagery and conditioning practices for dancers. Dance Research Journal, 29(1), 43-65.
Kremenitzer, P. J. (1990). Aerobic Fitness Dancing in the Elementary Schools. Journal of Physical Education, Recreation and Dance, 61, 89-90.
Liederbach, M. & Compagno, J. M. (2001). Psychological aspects of fatigue related injuries in dancers. Journal of Dance Medicine and Science, 5(4), 116-120.
Liederbach, M. (2000). General considerations for guiding dance injury and rehabilitation. Journal of Dance Medicine and Science, 4(2), 54-65.
Liiv, H., Jurimae, T., Maestu, J., Purge, P., Hannus, A., & Jurimae, J. (2012). Physiological characteristics of elite dancers of different dance styles. European Journal of Sport Science, 1, 1-8.
Lobo, Y. B. & Winsler, A. (2006). The Effects of a Creative Dance and Movement Program on the Social Competence of Head Start Preschoolers. SocialDevelopment, 15, 501-519.
Loenneke, J., Wilson, J., Wray, M., Barnes, J., Kearney, M., & Pujol, T. (2012). The estimation of the fat free mass index in athletes. Asian Journal of SportsMedicine, 3(3), 200-203.
Malkogeorgos, A., Argiriadou, E., Mavrovouniotis, f., & Zaggelidis, G. (2010). The frequency of injuries in Greek traditional dances. Scientific report seriesphysical education and sport, 14, 105-107.
Mavrovouniotis, F., Argiriadou, E., Papaioannou, C. (2010). Greek traditional dances and quality of old people’s life. Journal of Bodywork and MovementTherapies, 14, 209-218.
McIllroy, H. B., Roundy, S. E. & Jacobson, C. P. (1989). A Progressive Aerobic Program for Elementary Aged Children. The Physical Educator, 46, 21-26.
Mihajlovic, B., & Mijatov, S. (2003). Body composition analysis in ballet dancers. Medicinski Pregled, 56, 579-583.
Misigoj-Durakovic, M., Matkovic, B., Ruzic, L., Durakovic, Z., Babic, Z., Jancovic, S., & Ivancic-Kosuta, M. (2001). Body composition and functional abilities in terms of the quality of professional ballerinas. Collegium antropologicum 25, 585-590.
Negus, V., Hopper, D., & Briffa, K. (2005). The relationship between turnout and lower extemity injuries in classical ballet dancers. Journal of Orthopaedic andSports Physical Therapy, 35, 307-18.
Nevill, A. M., Stewart, A. D., Olds, T., & Holder, R. (2006). Relationship between adiposity and body size reveals limitations of BMI. American Journal of PhysicalAnthropology, 129(1), 151-156.
Novak, L. P., Magill, L. A. & Schutte, J. E. (1978). Maximal oxygen intake and body composition of female dancers. European Journal of Applied Physiology,39(4), 277-282.
Oreb, G., Ruzic, L., Matkovic, B., Misigoj-Durakovic, M., Vlasic, J., & Ciliga, D. (2006). Physical ﬁtness, menstrual cycle disorders and smoking habit in Croatian National Ballet and National Folk Dance Ensembles. CollegiumAntropologicum, 30, 279-283.
Padfield, J. A., Eisenman, P. A., Luetkemeier, M. J. & Fitt, S. S. (1993). Physiological profiles of performing and recreational early adolescent female dancers. Pediatric Exercise Science, 5(1), 51-59.
Pedersen, M. E., Wilmerding, M. V., Kuhn, B. T., & Encinias-Sandoval, E. (2001). Energy requirements of the American professional flamenco dancer. MedicalProblems of Performing Artists, 16, 47-52.
Pekkarinen, H., Litmanen, H., & Mahlamaki, S. (1989). Physiological profiles of young boys training in ballet. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 23(4), 245-249.
Pereira, R., Schettino, L., & Machado, M. (2010). Development of muscular explosive force in older women: influence of a dance-based Exercise routine. Medicina Sportiva, 14(4), 209-213.
Phillips, C. (1999). Strength training of dancers during the adolescent growth spurt. Journal of Dance Medicine and Science, 3(2), 66-72.
Potter, A. B., Lavery, E. S., & Bell, R. A. (1996). Body fat and body mass index measurements in preprofessional dance students: A comparison of formulas. Medical Problems of Performing Artists, 11, 43-46.
Ravaldi, C., Vannacci, A., Zucchi, T., Mannucci, E., Cabras, P. L., Boldrini, M., (…), & Ricca, V. (2003). Eating disorders and body image disturbances among ballet dancers, gymnasium users and body builders. Psychopathology 36, 247-254.
Redding, E. & Wyon, M. A. (2003). Strengths and weaknesses of current methods for evaluating the aerobic power of dancers. Journal of Dance Medicineand Science, 7(1), 10-16.
Redding, E., Weller, P., Ehrenberg, S., Irvine, S., Quin E, Rafferty, S., Wyon, M. & Cox, C. (2009) The Development of a high intensity dance performance fitness test. Journal of Dance Medicine & Science, 13(1), 3-9.
Ribeiro da Mota, G., Barbosa Neto, O., Guimarães Faleiros., A. C., Julianetti, A., Da Silva, L., Ricardo Lopes, C., De Oliveir, A., & Marocolo Júnior, M. (2011). Street-dance: Physiological demands and effect of endurance training. Journalof Physical Education and Sports Management, 2(5), 53-57.
Ribeiro-Nunes, S. M., Irene-Monte, A. S., Ferreira-Emygdio, R., & Knackfuss, M. I. (2007). Folk-dancing and walking: a comparative study of college students’ calorific output. Revista de Salud Pública, 9(4), 506-515.
Russell, J. A., Kruse, D. W., Nevill, A. M., Koutedakis, Y., & Wyon, M. A. (2010). Measurement of the extreme ankle range of motion required by female ballet dancers. Foot & Ankle Specialist, 3(6), 324-330.
Schantz, P. G., & Astrand, P. O. (1984). Physiological characteristics of classical ballet. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 16, 472-476.
Schmit, J. M., Regis, D. I., & Riley, M. A (2005). Dynamic patterns of postural sway in ballet dancers and track athletes. Experimental Brain Research, 163(3), 370-378.
Seip, R. L., Snead, D., Pierce, E. F., Stein, P., & Weltman, A. (1991). Perceptual responses and blood lactate concentration: effect of training state. Medicineand Science in Sports and Exercise, 23, 80-87.
Shah, S., Weiss, D. & Burchette, R. (2008). A profile of the demographics and training characteristics of professional modern dancers. Journal of DanceMedicine and Science, 12, 31-36.
Silva, A. H., & Bonorino, K. C. (2008). BMI and ﬂexibility in ballerinas of contemporary dance and classical ballet. Fitness & Performance Journal, 7(1), 48-51.
Solomon, R. (1987). Training dancers: anatomy as a master image. Journal ofPhysical Education, Recreation, and Dance, 58, 51-56.
Steinberg, N., Hershkovitz, I., Peleg, S., Dar, G., Masharawi, Y., Heim, M., & Siev-Ner, I. (2006). Range of joint movement in female dancers and nondancers aged 8 to 16 years: anatomical and clinical implications. TheAmerican Journal of Sports Medicine, 34(5), 814-823.
Steinberg, N., Siev-Ner, I., Peleg, S., Dar, G., Masharawi, Y., & Hershkovitz, I. (2008). Growth and development of female dancers aged 8-16 years. AmericanJournal of Human Biology, 20, 299-307.
Thomas, K.S. (2003). Functional eleve’ performance as it applies to heel-rises in performance-level collegiate dancers. Journal of Dance Medicine and Science, 7(4), 115-120.
Vetter, R. E., & Dorgo, S. (2009). Effects of partner’s improvisational resistance training on dancers’ muscular strength. Journal of Strength and ConditioningResearch (JSCR), 23, 718-728.
Viskić-Štalec, N., Štalec, J., Katić, R., Podvorac, Đ., & Katović, D. (2007). The impact of dance-aerobics training on the morpho-motor status in female high-schoolers. Collegium Antropologicum, 31(1), 259-266.
Walker, I. J., Nordin-Bates S. M., & Redding, E. (2011). Characteristics of talented dancers and age group differences: findings from the UK Centers for Advanced Training. High Ability Studies, 22(1), 43-60.
Watkins, A., Woodhull-McNeal, A. P., Clarkson P. M., & Ebbeling, C. (1989). Lower extremity alignment and injury in young, preprofessional, college, and professional ballet dancers. Medical Problems of Performing Artists, 4(4), 148-153.
Weigert, B. J. & Erickson, M. (2007). Incidence of injuries in female universitylevel modern dancers and the effectiveness of a screening program in altering injury patterns. Medical Problems of Performing Artists, 22(2), 52-57.
Weigert, B. J. (2005). Does prior training affect risk of injury in university dance programs? Medical Problems of Performing Artists, 20(3), 115-118.
Weiss, D. S. & Zlatkowski, M. (1996). Rehabilitation of dance injuries to the shoulder, lumbar spine, pvis and hip. Orthopaedic physical therapy clinics of NorthAmerica, 5(4), 477-496.
Wells, K. F. & Dillon, E. K. (1952). The sit and reach. A test of back and leg flexibility. Research Quarterly, 23, 115-118.
White, S. B., Philpot, A., Green, A. & Bemben, M. G. (2004). Physiological comparison between female university ballet and modern dance students. Journal of Dance Medicine and Science, 8(1), 5-10.
Whyte, G. P., George, K., Redding, E., Wilson, M., Lane, A. & Firooz, S. (2003). Electrocardiography and echocardiography findings in contemporary dancers. Journal of Dance Medicine and Science, 7(3), 91-95.
Wiesler, E. R., Monte Hunter, D., Martin, D. F., Curl, W. W. & Hoen, H. (1996). Ankle flexibility and injury patterns in dancers. The American Journal of SportsMedicine, 24(6), 754-757.
Wyon, M. A. & Redding, E. (2005). Physiological monitoring of cardiorespiratory adaptations during rehearsal and performance of contemporary dance. Journal of Strength & Conditioning Research, 19(3), 611-614.
Wyon, M. A., Abt, G., Redding, E., Head, A., & Sharp, N.C. (2004). Oxygen uptake during modern dance class, rehearsal, and performance. Journal ofStrength and Conditioning Research, 18, 646-649.
Wyon, M. A., Head, A., Sharp, C. & Redding, E. (2002). The cardiorespiratory responses to modern dance class. Differences between university, graduate and professional classes. Journal of Dance Medicine and Science, 6(2), 41-45.
Yannakoulia, M., Keramopoulos, A. & Matalas, A.L. (2004). Bone mineral density in young active females: The case of dancers. The International Journal of SportNutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 14(3), 285-97.
Yannakoulia, M., Keramopoulos, A., Tsakalakos, N. & Matalas, A. L. (2000). Body composition in dancers: The bioelectrical impedance method. Medicine andScience in Sports and Exercise, 32(1), 228-34.