A Comparative Study on Strength between American College Male and Female Students in Caucasian and Asian Populations

Open access

A Comparative Study on Strength between American College Male and Female Students in Caucasian and Asian Populations

Muscle strength has been considered as a major factor on sport performance, martial arts competitions, self-defense, and other physical activities. The purpose of the study was to investigate potential difference on muscle strength between male and female college students. The results indicated that the muscle strength of female students is significantly lower than male students on strength of arm, upperbody and chest, shoulder, leg, and abdominal. Females have 37-68% of muscle strength of males in general. The difference on muscle strength between females and males is more on upper body, and less on lower body. Females are relatively stronger on their legs than arms and shoulders.

Chen, G. (2004). A comprehensive guide to self-defense. A textbook published by Kendall/Hunt Publishing Company. IW: Dubuque.

Chen, G, & Chen, C. (2008). Coaching badminton 101, Coaches Choice, CA: Monterey.

Chen, G. (2010). Self-defense competency of American college students in self-defense class in physical education program. Sport Science Review, XIX (3-4), p. 5-18. doi: 10.2478/v10237-011-0014-y

Chen, G., & Liu, L. (2011). A study on exercise intensity in physical self-defense skills practice in university self-defense classes. Journal of Academic Perspective, 6, 54-67.

Field, R. W., & Roberts, S. O. (1999). Weight training. WCB McGraw-Hill.

Frontera, W. R., Hughes, V. A., Lutz, K. J., & Evans, W. J. (1991). A cross-sectional study of muscle strength and mass in 45- to 78-year-old men and women, Journal of Applied Physiology, 71(2), 644-650.

Heyward, V. (2006). Advanced fitness assessment and exercise prescription. Human Kinetics, IL: Champaign.

Hoeger, W. K. & Hoeger, S. A. (1996). Fitness & wellness, Morton Publishing Company, CO: Englewood.

Janssen, I., Heymsfield, S. B., Wang, Z., & Ross, R. (1999). Skeletal muscle mass and distribution in 468 men and women aged 18-88 yr. Journal of Applied Physiology, 89(1), 81-88.

Lemmer, J. T., Hurlbut, D. E., Martel, G. F., Tracy, B. L., Ivey, F. M., Metter, E. J., Fozard, J. L., Fleg, J. L., & Hurley, B. F. (2000). Age and gender responses to strength training and detraining. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 32(8), 1505-1512.

Lindle, R. S., Metter, E. J., Lynch, N. A., Fleg, J. L., Fozard, J. L., Tobin, J., Roy, T. A., & Hurley, B. F. (1997). Age and gender comparison of muscle strength in 654 women and men aged 20-93 yr. Journal of Applied Physiology, 83(5), 1581-1587.

Miller, A. E., MacDougall, J. D., Tarnopolsky, M. A., & Sale, D. G. (1993). Gender differences in strength and muscle fiber characteristics, Eur J Appl Physiol, 66(3), 254-262.

CIO, Track and field recorders, Retrieved from http://www.olympic.org

Rasch, P. (1990). Weight Training, WCB, IA: Dubuque.

Sport Science Review

The Journal of National Institute for Sport Research

Journal Information

Cited By


All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 272 272 25
PDF Downloads 141 141 28