Kinaesthesia and Methods for its Assessment: Literature Review
In this review measurement techniques used for kinaesthetic sense assessment are presented. Kinaesthesia is an important part of human movement control and provides us with better understanding of specific movement system adaptations to fatigue, training and injury. Additionally, decreased kinaesthesia can be an injury predisposing factor, which stresses the necessity for its assessment in sports injury prevention programs. First, terminology and functional concept of kinaesthesia is presented in relation to other related concepts like proprioception and sensory-motor function. For better understanding, basic underlying neurological backgrounds are discussed in chapter two, encompassing peripheral sensory fields as well as the basics of the central processing. Additionally, factors affecting kinaesthesia and its adaptations to training are presented. Functional aspects are discussed, supporting the role of assessment of kinaesthesia in sports and rehabilitation. In the third chapter, a proposal for measuring methods classification is given. In the final chapter, different measuring protocols and their modifications are presented. Due to their usefulness in sports and injury prevention, methods for measuring sense of joint position, movement onset and active tracking are discussed in more detail. Possibilities and examples of their application to sports and sports injury rehabilitation settings are presented. Some basic guidelines are given of how to use these methods in training or for screening kinaesthesia.
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