Basic Physical – Mechanical Properties of Geopolymers Depending on the Content of Ground Fly Ash and Fines of Sludge

Open access


The binding potential of fly ash (FA) as a typical basic component of building mixtures can be improved in mechanical way, which unfolds new possibilities of its utilization. This paper presents the possibilities of preparing the geopolymer mixtures based on ground (dm = 31.0 μm) FA, used in varying percentages to the original (unground; dm = 74.1 μm) one. As a modification, fine-grain sludge from the process of washing the crushed aggregates was used as filler in order to obtain mortar-type material. The basic physical-mechanical properties of mixtures are presented and discussed in the paper, focusing on time dependence. The following standard tests were executed after 2, 7, 28, and 120 days: density, total water absorption, flexural strength, and compressive strength. Ground FA provided for positive effect in all tested parameters, while incorporation of fine portion of sludge into the geopolymer mixture does not offer a significant technical profit. On the other hand, it does not cause the decline in the properties, so the environmental effect (reduction of environmental burden) can be applied through its incorporation into the geopolymer mixtures.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • [1] I. Nikolič et al. (2012). Geopolymerization of fly ash as a possible solution for stabilization of used sandblasting grit. Zaštita Materiala. 53 243-246. UDC: 504.3.056.

  • [2] J. Davidovits. (1994). High-Alkali Cements for 21st Century Concretes. Concrete Technology Past Present and Future. ACI SP 144 383-397.

  • [3] L. Y. Huang D. W. Li Y. C. Shiau S. Li & K. X. Liu. (2015). Preparation and properties of geopolymer from blast furnace slag. Materials Research Innovations. 19(10) 413-419. DOI: 10.1179/1432891715Z.0000000002210.

  • [4] N. T. Ravindra S. Ghosh. (2009). Effect of mix composition on compressive strength and microstructure of fly ash based geopolymer composites. ARPN Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences. 4(4) 68-73.

  • [5] M. A. Villaquirán-Caicedo R. Mejía-de Gutiérrez. Synthesis of ternary geopolymers based on metakaolin boiler slag and rice husk ash. DYNA. 82 (194) 104-110. DOI: 10.15446/dyna.v82n194.46352.

  • [6] P. Rovnaník K. Šafránková. (2016). Thermal Behaviour of Metakaolin/Fly Ash Geopolymers with Chamotte Aggregate. Materials. 9(7) 535. DOI: 10.3390/ma9070535.

  • [7] N. Marjanović M. Komljenović Z. Baščarević V. Nikolić. (2014). Improving reactivity of fly ash and properties of ensuing geopolymers through mechanical activation. Construction and Building Materials. 57 151-162. DOI: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2014.01.095.

  • [8] B. V. Rangan. (2008). Fly ash-based geopolymer concrete. Research Report GC 4. Curtin University of Technology. Engineering Faculty. Perth Australia.

  • [9] A. Palomo M. W. Grutzeck M. T. Blanco. (1999). Alkali-activated fly ashes-Cement for the future. Cement and Concrete Research. 29 1323-1329. DOI: 10.1016/S0008-8846(98)00243-9.

  • [10] A. Palomo A. Fernández-Jiménez. (2011). Alkaline activation procedure for transforming fly ash into new materials. In World of Coal Ash (WOCA) Conference. May 9-12 1-14 Denver USA.

  • [11] D. Khale R. Chaudhary. (2007). Mechanism of geopolymerization and factors influencing its development: a review. Journal of Materials Science. 42(3) 729-746. DOI: 10.1007/s10853- 006-0401-4.

  • [12] M. F. Ahmed M. F. Nuruddin N. Shafiq. (2011). Compressive Strength and Workability Characteristics of Low-Calcium Fly ash-based Self-Compacting Geopolymer Concrete. International Journal of Civil Environmental Structural Construction and Architectural Engineering. 5(2) 64-70.

  • [13] M.P.C.M. Gunasekara D.W. Law S. Setunge. (2014). Effect of composition of fly ash on compressive strength of fly ash based geopolymer mortar. In 23rd Australasian Conference on the Mechanics of Structures and Materials 9.-12. December 113-118. Byron Bay Australia: Southern Cross University.

  • [14] D. Cross J. Stephens J. Vollmer. (2005). Field Trials of 100% Fly Ash Concrete. Concrete International. 27(09) 47-51.

  • [15] Portland Cement Association. (2007). M. Thomas. Optimizing the Use of Fly Ash in Concrete. USA.

  • [16] S.S. Jamkar Y.M. Ghugal S.V. Patankar. (2013). Effect of Fineness of Fly Ash on Flow and Compressive Strength of Geopolymer Concrete. The Indian Concrete Journal. 57-61.

  • [17] D. Cresswell. (2016). Quarry Fines & Paper Sludge in Manufactured Aggregate. Case Study WRT 177 / WR0115. Smart Waste UK.

  • [18] B. González-Corrochano et al. (2016). Valorization of washing aggregate sludge and sewage sludge for lightweight aggregates production. Construction and Building Materials. 116. 252-262. DOI: 10.1016/j.conbuildmat.2016.04.095.

  • [19] M. Želinková. (2014). The analysis of particle size of fly ashes - the possibility of obtaining fine particles by grinding. In Proceedings of Seminar of PhD. Students. 72-80. Kosice - TU.

  • [20] S. Yazici S. Arel. (2012). Effects of fly ash fineness on the mechanical properties of concrete. Sadhana. 37(3) 389-403. DOI: 10.1007/s12046-012-0083-3.

  • [21] F. Škvara T. Jílek L. Kopecký. (2005). Geopolymer materials based on fly ash. Ceramics -Silicate. 49(3) 195-204.

  • [22] Slovak Office of Standards Metrology and Testing Bratislava. (2001). Methods of test for mortar for masonry. Part 10: Determination of dry bulk density of hardened mortar. STN EN 1015-10.

  • [23] Slovak Office of Standards Metrology and Testing Bratislava. (1989). Determination of moisture water absorption and capillarity of concrete. STN 731316.

  • [24] Slovak Office of Standards Metrology and Testing Bratislava. (2001). Methods of test for mortar for masonry. Part 11: Determination of flexural and compressive strength of hardened mortar. STN EN 1015-11.

  • [25] H.W. Nugteren et al. (2009). High Strength Geopolymers from Fractionated and Pulverized Fly Ash. In World of Coal Ash Conference May 4-7. Lexington USA.

  • [26] M. Chollet M. Horgnies. (2011). Analyses of the surfaces of concrete by Raman and FT-IR spectroscopies: comparative study of hardened samples after demoulding and after organic post-treatment. Surface and Interface Analysis 43 714-725. DOI: 10.1002/sia.3548.

  • [27] M.M.A.B. Abdullah et al. (2012). Fly ash-based geopolymer lightweight concrete using foaming agent. Internationa Journal of Molecular Sciences 13 7186-7198. DOI: 10.3390/ijms13067186.

  • [28] A. Fernandez-Jimenez A. Palomo. (2005). Composition and microstructure of alkali activated fly ash binder: Effect of the activator. Cement and Concrete Research 35 1984-1992. DOI: 10.1016/j.cemconres.2005.03.003.

  • [29] A. Fernandez-Jimenez A. Palomo. (2005). Mid-infrared spectroscopic studies of alkali activated fly ash structure. Microporous Mesoporous Mater. 86 207-214. DOI: 10.1016/j.micromeso.2005.05.057.

  • [30] M. Criado A. Palomo A. Fernandez-Jimenez. (2005). Alkali activation of fly ashes. Part I. Effect of curing conditions on the carbonation of the reaction products. Fuel. 84 2048-2054. DOI: 10.1016/j.fuel.2005.03.030.

  • [31] M.Y.A. Mollah W.Y.R. Schennach D.L. Cocke. (2000). A Fourier transform infrared spectroscopic investigation of the early hydration of Portland cement and the influence of sodium lignosulfonate. Cement and Concrete Research 30 267- 273. DOI: 10.1016/S0008- 8846(99)00243-4.

  • [32] J. Bensted. (1976). Examination of the hydration of slag and pozzolanic cement by infrared spectroscopy. Cemento. 73 209-214.

  • [33] X. Guo H. Shi W.A. Dick. (2010). Compressive strength and microstructural characteristic of class C fly ash geopolymer. Cement and Concrete Research 32 142-147. DOI: 10.1016/j.cemconcomp.2009.11.003.

Journal information
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 323 115 6
PDF Downloads 138 51 3