Properties and classification of heavily eroded post-chernozem soils in Proszowice Plateau (southern Poland)

Abstract

The morphology and properties of heavily eroded soils found in chernozems in the upland landscape of the Proszowice Plateau (southern part of Poland) was presented. The issue of classification of these soils was also discussed. Taking into account the terrain context, it should have been assumed that these soils were formed as a result of strong erosion (truncation) of chernozems. These (post-chernozem) soils were relatively young, in which only the development of humus horizon can be documented. However, the accumulation of humus was hampered by constantly intense erosion processes. Evidence of the occurrence of the illuviation process as well as formation of cambic horizon is not visible macroscopically and microscopically. These soils are often classified as weakly developed soils though despite the poor development of the soil profile, they are characterized by potentially high productivity, which results both from the properties of their parent material (texture, porosity) and from their youthfulness (carbonate content both in fine earths and in nodules, high pH in whole profile). Therefore, the name proposed in Polish Soil Classification, 6th edition (‘pararędzina’) seems to be justified. These soils would be classified as Entisols according to USDA Soil Taxonomy and as Regosols according to WRB.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Borowiec J., 1966. Wpływ wylesienia i użytkowania rolniczego na morfologię i właściwości czarnoziemu w terenie urzeź-bionym. Annales UMCS, seria E, 21: 83–103.

  • Borowiec J., 1967. Czarnoziemy Wyżyny Lubelskiej. Cz. II. Problemy genezy, ewolucji i typologii gleb. Annales UMCS, seria B, 22: 39–58.

  • Borrelli P., Robinson D.A., Fleischer L.R., Lugato E., Ballabio C., Alewell C., Meusburger K., Modugno S., Schütt B., Ferro V., Bagarello V., Van Oost K., Montanarella L., Panagos P., 2017. An assessment of the global impact of 21st century land use change on soil erosion. Nature Communications 8: 2013.

  • Dobrzański B., 1962. Aktualne zagadnienia i perspektywy badań nad erozją gleb. Roczniki Gleboznawcze – Soil Science Annual 11: 219 pp.

  • Dotterweich M., Stankoviansky M., Minár J., Koco Š., Papčo P., 2013. Human induced soil erosion and gully system development in the Late Holocene and future perspectives on landscape evolution: the Myjava Hill Land, Slovakia. Geomorphology 201: 227–245.

  • Gąsior J., Partyka A., 1999. Czarnoziemy południowo-wschodniej Polski i ich degradacja. Zeszyty Problemowe Postępów Nauk Rolniczych 467: 234–232.

  • IUSS Working Group WRB, 2015. World References Base for Soil Resources 2014, Update 2015. World Soil Resources Reports, 106, FAO, Rome: 192 pp.

  • Izaurralde R.C., Malhi S.S., Nyborg M., Solberg E.D., Quiroga-Jakas M.C., 2006. Crop performance and soil properties in two artificially eroded soils in north-central Alberta. Agronomy Journal 98(5): 1298–1311.

  • Jankauskas B., Fullen M.A., 2002. A pedological investigation of soil erosion severity on undulating land in Lithuania. Canadian J. Soil Sciences 82: 311–321.

  • Jersak J., 1973. Litologia i stratygrafia lessu wyżyn południowej Polski. Acta Geographica Lodziensia 32: 125 pp.

  • Józefaciuk A., Nowocień E., Wawer R., 2014. Erozja gleb w Polsce – skutki środowiskowe i gospodarcze, działania zaradcze. Monografie i Rozprawy Naukowe IUNG PIB 44: 260 pp.

  • Józefaciuk C., Józefaciuk A., 1984. Zmiany rzeźby terenu w Werbkowicach pod wpływem erozji w latach 1950–1980. Pamiętnik Puławski 83: 165–177.

  • Kabała C., Charzyński P., Chodorowski J., Drewnik M., Glina B., Greinert A., Hulisz P., Jankowski M., Jonczak J., Łabaz B., Łachacz A., Marzec M., Mendyk Ł., Musiał P., Musielok Ł., Smreczak B., Sowiński P., Świtoniak M., Uzarowicz Ł., Waroszewski J., 2019. Polish Soil Classification, 6th edition – principles, classification scheme and correlations. Soil Science Annual 70(2): 71–97.

  • Kaiser J., 2004. Wounding Earth’s fragile skin. Science 304: 1616–1618.

  • Klimowicz Z., Uziak S., 2001. The influence of long-term cultivation on soil properties and patterns in an undulating terrain in Poland. Catena 43: 177–189.

  • Kobierski M., 2013. Morphology, properties and mineralogical composition of eroded luvisols in selected morainic areas of the Kujavian and Pomeranian Province. University of Technology and Life Sciences, Bydgoszcz.

  • Komornicki T., 1974. Gleby terytorium miasta Krakowa. Folia Geographica, ser. Geographica-Physica 8: 145–151.

  • Kruk J., Milisauskas S., Alexandrowicz S.W., Śnieszko Z., 1996. Osadnictwo i zmiany środowiska naturalnego Wyżyn Lessowych. Studium archeologiczne i paleogeograficzne nad neolitem w Dorzeczu Nidzicy. Instytut Archeologii i Etnologii PAN, Kraków: 139 pp.

  • Licznar M., Drozd J., 1985. Wpływ erozji na właściwości związków próchnicznych w niektórych jednostkach systematycznych gleb. Roczniki Gleboznawcze – Soil Science Annual 36(3): 189–199.

  • Michno A., 2004. Transformacja doliny dolnej Nidzicy w holocenie. IGiGP UJ, Kraków: 98 pp.

  • Montanarella L., Pennock D.J., McKenzie N.J., Badraoui M., Chude V., Baptista I., Mamo T., Yemefack M., Singh Aulakh M., Yagi K., Young Hong S., Vijarnsorn P., Zhang G.-L., Arrouays D., Black H., Krasilnikov P., Sobocká J., Alegre J., Henriquez C.R., Mendonça-Santos M.L., Taboada M., Espinosa-Victoria D., Al-Shankiti A., Alavi-Panah S.K., Elsheikh E.A.E., Hempel J., Camps-Arbestain M., Nachtergaele F., Vargas R., 2015. World’s soils are under threat. Soil 2: 1263–1272.

  • Novák T., Árendás T., Świtoniak M., 2018. Soils of an undulating, cultivated loess plateau in North Mezőföld, Central Hungary. [In:] Soil sequences atlas IV. [Eds.] Świtoniak M., Charzyński P., Machina Druku, Toruń: 113–122.

  • Olszewski Z., Barański E., Skłodowski P., 1965. Czarnoziemy Proszowskie. Roczniki Nauk Rolniczych 90-A-1: 61–106.

  • Paluszek J., 1995. Zmiany struktury i właściwości fizycznych czarnoziemów pod wpływem erozji wodnej Roczniki Gleboznawcze – Soil Science Annual 46(1/2): 21–35.

  • Paluszek J., 2013. Assessment of soil structure of Luvisols developed from loess classified in various complexes of agricultural suitability. Soil Science Annual 64 (2): 41–48.

  • Phillips J.D., Slattery M., Gares P.A., 1999. Truncation and accretion of soil profiles on coastal plain croplands: implications for sediment redistribution. Geomorphology 28: 119–140.

  • Podlasiński M., 2013. Denudation of anthropogenic impact on the diversity of soil cover and its spatial structure in the agricultural landscape of moraine, West Pomeranian University of Technology, Szczecin (in Polish with English summary).

  • Soil Survey Staff, 2014. Keys to Soil Taxonomy, 12th ed. USDA, Natural Resources Conservation Service, Washington, DC: 633 pp.

  • Systematyka gleb Polski, 1989. Roczniki Gleboznawcze – Soil Science Annual 40(3/4): 1–150.

  • Systematyka gleb Polski, 2011. Roczniki Gleboznawcze – Soil Science Annual 62(3): 1–193.

  • Systematyka gleb Polski, 2019. Wydawnictwo Uniwersytetu Przyrodniczego we Wrocławiu, Polskie Towarzystwo Gleboznawcze, Wrocław-Warszawa: 292 pp.

  • Świtoniak M., Dąbrowski M., Łyszkiewicz A., 2015. The influence of human-induced erosion on the soil organic carbon stock in vineyards of Fordon valley. Polish Journal of Soil Science 48(2): 197–211.

  • Świtoniak M., Mroczek P., Bednarek R., 2016. Luvisols or Cambisols? Micromorphological study of soil truncation in young morainic landscapes – Case study: Brodnica and Chełmno Lake Districts (North Poland). Catena 137: 583–595.

  • Valde-Nowak P., 2004. Neolit. Lessowe centra i górskie peryferie. [In:] (D. Abłamowicz Ed.) Zmiany środowiska geograficznego w dobie gospodarki rolno-hodowlanej. Studia z obszaru Polski. Katowice: 383–394.

  • Walczowski A., 1982. Mapa geologiczna szczegółowa Polski w skali 1:50,000, arkusz Kazimierza Wielka (948). Wydawnictwo Geologiczne, Warszawa.

  • Walczowski A., 1984. Objaśnienia do Szczegółowej Mapy Geologicznej Polski, arkusz Kazimierza Wielka (948) w skali 1:50,000. Wydawnictwo Geologiczne, Warszawa.

  • Wasak K., Drewnik M., 2015. Land use effects on soil organic carbon sequestration in calcareous Leptosols in former pastureland – a case study from the Tatra Mountains (Poland). Solid Earth 6: 1103–1115.

  • Wiesmeier M., Lungu M., Huebner R., Cerbari V., 2015. Remediation of degraded arable steppe soils in Moldova using vetch as green manure. Solid Earth 6: 609–620.

  • Žížala D., Juřicová A., Zádorová T., Zelenková K., Minařík R., 2019. Mapping soil degradation using remote sensing data and ancillary data: South-East Moravia, Czech Republic. European Journal of Remote Sensing 52, S1: 108–122.

  • Żyła M., 2007. Ewolucja gleb erodowanych w obszarach lessowych. Ph.D thesis. Jagiellonian University, Institute of Geography and Spatial Management: 145 pp.

  • Żyła M., 2009. Water and air properties of eroded loess soils of the Proszowice Plateau. Folia Geographica, ser. Geographica-Physica 40: 91–103.

OPEN ACCESS

Journal + Issues

Search