Effect of long-term organic and mineral fertilisation on selected physico-chemical soil properties in rye monoculture and five-year crop rotation

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The research was carried out continuously since 1923 in a permanent fertilisation experiment at the Experimental Station of SGGW in Skierniewice. The objective of the research was to determine the effect of long-term fertilisation (Ca, CaNPK, NPK) and crop rotation systems (rye monoculture without fertilisation with manure and five-field rotation with legume crop and manure fertilisation) on selected physical and chemical soil properties. Long-term fertilisation caused various degrees of change in many physio-chemical properties in three soil horizons (Ap, Eet, Bt): pH in KCl, cation exchange capacity, total exchangeable bases, base saturation, content of carbon, nitrogen and mineral forms of nitrogen (NO3, NH4) as well as the carbon-nitrogen ratio. The combined manure and mineral fertilisation increased the sorption capacity, total exchangeable bases, base cation saturation and total content of C and N in comparison to organic or mineral fertilisation. As a result of lime application, an increase in these parameters was determined with the exception of total contents of carbon and nitrogen, showing no differences or a decrease. A positive effect was confirmed in five-field crop rotation, which improves physicochemical soil properties in comparison to cereal monoculture. The C:N ratio narrows down with growing depth because more nitrogen than carbon migrates down the soil profile.

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