Reclaiming Saline-Sodic Soils Using Electrochemical Processes: A Case Study From Sahl El-Tina Plain, Egypt

Mohamed K. Abdel-Fattah 1
  • 1 Soil Science Department, Faculty of Agriculture, Zagazig University, Egypt


A leaching experiment was conducted using column techniques assessing efficiency of electrochemical process to reclaim saline-sodic soils. Soil material was collected from Sahl El-Tina plain, which located in North West coast of Sinai, Egypt. The experiment was designed as factorial randomized complete block and all treatments were replicated three times. Two 2.5 cm diameterx30 cm height mild stainless steel tubes were inserted into the soil matrix to serve as electrodes (i.e. cathode and anode). Distance between cathode and anode was 10 cm. Electrodes were supplied by a direct current (DC) power supply; Volt ages of 0.3 or 9 Volt. Leaching was done using the intermittent method so as to add portions to the already saturated soil columns, and obtain leachates equal to the added portions. Pore volume 0.1 PV was used in the leaching processes which are equal 498.4 cm3, i.e. PV being volume of pores per column, thus 1 PV equals volume of pores (cm3) expressed as water quantity. Electric remediation increased ionic mobility and separated salts from soil. All treatments decreased soil EC and soil sodicity expressed as SAR and ESP. Results showed that 9 Volt treatment was more effective in decreasing the soil EC and soil sodicity than the other treatments. Efficiency of treatments were 9-Volt > 3-Volt > leaching alone (non-DC treatment). This study suggests that leaching using direct current (DC) led to improvement of the chemical properties of saline sodic soils and required a short time to reclaim saline-sodic soils compared with leaching alone.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Acar Y.B, Alshawabkeh A.N., 1993. Principles of electrokinetic re-mediation. Environmental Science & Technology, 27:2638-2647.

  • Acar Y.B., Gale R.J., Alshawabkeh A.N., Marks R.E., Puppala S., Bricka M., Parker R., 1995. Electrokinetic remediation: Basics andtechnology status. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 40: 117-137.

  • Altaee A., Smith R., Mikhalovsky S., 2008. The feasibility of decontamination of reduced salinę sediments from copper using the electrokinetic process. Journal of Environmental Management, 88: 1611-1618.

  • Amrate S, Akretche D.E., Innocent C, Seta P, 2005. Removal of Pb from a calcareous soil during EDTA-enhanced electrokinetic extraction. Science of the Total Emironment, 349: 56-66.

  • Athmer C, Ruef C, Jones T, Wilkens R, 2013. Desalinization of kaolin soil using radial electromigration and electroosmosis. Journal of Hazardous, Toxic, andRadioactive Waste, 17(1): 16-20.

  • Baek K., Kim D.H., Park S.W., Ryu B.G., Bajargal T., Yang J.S., 2009. Electrolyte conditioning-enhanced electrokinetic remediation of arsenic-contaminated minę tailing. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 161: 457-462.

  • Cho J.M., Kim D.H., Yang J.S., Baek K., 2011. Electrokinetic restoration of sulfate-accumulated salinę greenhouse soil. Clean - Soil, Air, Water, 39 (12): 1036-1040.

  • Cho J.M., Kim K.J., Chung K.Y, Hyun S., Baek K., 2009. Restoration of salinę soil in cultivated land using electrokinetic process. Separation Science and Technology, 44:2371-2384.

  • De Gioannis G., Muntoni A., Polettini A., Pomi R, 2007. Electrokinetic treatment of marinę sediments contaminated by heavy metals. Proceedings of the 23rd Annual Conference on Soils, Sediments and Water, 15-18 October 2007, Amherst, MA, USA.

  • Eid N., Slack D., Larson D., 2000a. Nitrate electromigration in sandy soil: closed system response. Journal of Irrigation and Drainage Engineering, 126: 389-397.

  • Eid N., Elshorbagy W., Larson D., Slack D., 2000b. Electro-mi-gration of nitrate in sandy soil. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 79: 133-149.

  • Jayasekera S., Hall S., 2007. Modification of the properties of salt affected soils using electrochemical treatments. Geotech-nical and Geological Engineering, 25: 1-10.

  • Jia X., Larson D., Slack D., Walworth J., 2005. Electrokinetic control of nitrate movement in soil. Engineering Geology, 77: 273-283.

  • Jia X., Larson D.L., Zimmt W.S., 2006. Effective nitrate control with electrokinetics in sand soil. Transactions of the ASAE, 49: 803-809.

  • Kim D.H., Cho J.M., Kitae B., 2011. Pilot-scale ex situ electrokinetic restoration of salinę Green house soil. Journal of Soils and Sediments, 11: 947-958.

  • Kim D.H., Jeon CS., Baek K., Ko S.H., Yang J.S., 2009a. Electrokinetic remediation of fluorine-contaminated soil. Conditioning of Anolyte. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 161(1): 565-569.

  • Kim D.H., Ryu B.G., Park S.W., Seo CL, Baek K., 2009b. Electrokinetic remediation of Zn and Ni-Contaminated soil. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 165: 501-505.

  • Kim J.H., Han S.J., Kim S.S., Yang J.W, 2006. Effect of soil chemical properties on the remediation of phenanthrene-con-taminated soil by electrokinetic-Fenton process. Chemosphe-re, 63: 1667-1676.

  • Kim S.S., Kim J.H., Han S.J., 2005. Application of the electrokinetic-Fenton process for the remediation of kaolinite contaminated with phenanthrene. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 118: 121-131.

  • Lynch R. J., Muntoni A., Ruggeri R., Winfield K.C, 2007. Preli-minary tests of an electrokinetic barrier to prevent heavy metal pollution of soils. ElectrochimicaActa, 52: 3432-3440.

  • Manokararajah K., Sri Ranjan R., 2005a. Electrokinetic denitri-fication of nitrates in a nitrate contaminated silty loam soil. Applied Engineering in Agriculture, 21(3): 541-549.

  • Manokararajah K., Sri Ranjan R., 2005b. Electrokinetic retention, migration and remediation of nitrates in silty loam soil under hydraulic gradients. Engineering Geology, 77(3-1): 263-272.

  • Mitchell J.K., 1993. Fundamentals of soil behavior. 2”d ed, John Wiley and Sons Inc., New York, NY, USA: 437 pp.

  • Niroumand H., Nazir R., Kassim K.A., 2012. The performance of electrochemical remediation technologies in soil mecha-nics. International Journal of Electrochemical Science, 7: 5708-5715.

  • Park J.Y, Kim S.J., Lee Y.J., Baek K., Yang J.W, 2005. EK-Fenton process for removal of phenanthrene in a two-dimensional soil system. Engineering Geology, 77: 217-224.

  • Park S.W, Lee J.Y, Yang J.S., Kim K.J., Baek K., 2009. Electrokinetic remediation of contaminated soil with waste-lubricant oils and zinc. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 169:1168-1172.

  • Reddy K.R., Chinthamreddy S., 2004. Enhanced electrokinetic remediation of heavy metals in glacial till soils using diffe-rent electrolyte solutions. Journal of Environmental Engineering, 130: 442-455.

  • Ryu B.G., Park S.W, Baek K., Yang J.S., 2009. Pulsed electrokinetic decontamination of agricultural lands around abando-nedmines contaminated with Heavy Metals. Separation Science and Technology, 44: 2421-2436.

  • Richards L.A. (ed.), 1954. Diagnosis and improvement of salinę and alkali soils. Agriculture Hand Book No. 60 US Gov. Prin-ting Office, Washington, 160 pp.

  • Virkutyte J., Sillanpaa M., Latostenmaa P, 2002. Electrokinetic soil remediation - critical overview. The Science of the Total Environment, 289: 97-121.

  • Van Reeuvijk L.P (ed.). 2002. Procedures for Soil Analysis. ISRIC, Wageningen.

  • You-Jin L., Jeong-Hee C, Hyun-Goo L., Tae-Hyun H., 2013. Electrokinetic remediation of salinę soil using pulse power. Environmental Engineering Science, 30(3): 133 pp.

  • Yu J.W, Neretnieks L, 1997. Theoretical evaluation of a techni-que for electrokinetic decontamination of soils. Journal of Con-taminantHydrology, 26: 291-299.

  • Zhou D.M., Deng CE, Cang L., Alshawabkeh A.N., 2005. Electrokinetic remediation of a Cu-Zn contaminated red soil by controlling the Volt age and conditioning catholytepH. Che-mosphere, 61:519-527.


Journal + Issues