Characteristics of Physical Training of Persons with Visual Impairment - From Instruction and Workout to Training and Competition

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Visual impairment as a congenital condition or acquired state is due to: eye diseases, physical injuries, falls, brain injuries, infections, etc. In relation to the degree of visual impairment, there are blind and low vision persons.

Due to insufficient or non-existent visual information at an early stage of development, children with visual impairment are not aware of their own body and space, therefore they have problems with their own motion. The motor development of children with visual impairment is slow, which manifests through delayed walking, inaptitude, clumsiness, frequent fall and bad coordination. On the other hand, it is possible that the ultimate level of motor abilities of people with visual impairment can be approximate or the same as people without visual impairment.

For an appropriate approach to physical exercise it is necessary to consider the following in a person with visual impairment: the amount and type of vision, physical, functional, health and mental state. The basic characteristics of implementing physical exercises with this population include: adaptation of teaching methods, adaptation of the exercise space and selection of appropriate requisites and equipment.

The way of acquiring knowledge of the low vision children is visual information (regardless of the poor quality of their reception), and for blind children there are audible and tactile information. A constant, detailed verbal description of motions and movements is necessary in order to explain incomplete visual information and associate it with successive tactile information. An individual-led activity ensures understanding of the person with VI on the required movement. The analytical method is the dominant method during instructions and training.

Sports in which people with visual impairment can participate are: athletics, chess, judo, ninepin bowling, tenpin bowling, shooting, swimming, torball, football 5, golf, showdown, golf, powerlifting, skiing, riding ... IBSA (International Blind Sport Federation) is an international sports organization that takes care of sports of persons with VI and is a member of the IPC (International Paralympic Committee). Competitions involving people with VI include: Paralympic Games, IBSA Games, world, continental, regional and national championships, as well as many international and national tournaments.

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