Self-Regulation in Higher Education: Students’ Motivational, Regulational and Learning Strategies, and Their Relationships to Study Success

Open access

Abstract

This study investigates how in the self-regulation of learning (SRL; Pintrich 2000; Zimmerman, 2000), the motivational and affective factors are related to regulation strategies of behaviour and context, and learning strategies - and identifies different profiles in SRL. The study also aims to explore which factors of SRL are related to study success and study progress during master degree studies. The data consist of undergraduate students’ (N = 1248) responses to IQ Learn self-report questionnaires, and of data (n = 229) retrieved from the university ’ s study register. The results revealed that the sub-processes of SRL: motivational and affective components, regulation strategies and learning strategies are systematically related with each other. In addition, motivational and affective factors, especially Intrinsic motivation predicted the use of strategies regulating behaviour and context and the use of learning strategies. Study success correlated slightly positively with accumulation of credits indicating that students with better grades proceed efficiently in their studies. Yet, accumulation of credits was evidenced to relate slightly and negatively with expectancy components of SRL and the use of deep learning strategies. Finally, three student profiles in SRL were encountered: (1) Aiming high with insufficient SRL, (2) Excellent in SRL, and (3) Distressed performers. Educational implications and the needs for future research are discussed.

Bembenutty, H. (2009). Academic delay of gratification, self-regulation of learning, gender differences, and expectancy value. Personality and Individual Differences, 46, 347-352.

Bembenutty, H., & Karabenick, S. A. (2004). Inherent association between academic delay of gratification, future time perspective, and self-regulated learning: Effects of time perspective on student motivation. Educational Psychology Review, 16, 35–57.

Boekaerts, M. (1997). Self-regulated learning: a new concept embraced by researchers, policy makers, educators, teachers and students. Learning and Instruction, 7, 161 –186.

Bruinsma, M. (2004). Motivation, cognitive processing and achievement in higher education. Learning and Instruction, 14, 549–568.

Cazan, A. (2012). Self-regulated learning strategies–predictors of academic adjustment. Procedia–Social and Behavioral Sciences, 33, 104 –108.

Chapell, M. S., Blanding, Z B., Silverstein, M E., Takahashi, M., Newman, B., Gubi, A., & McCann, N. (2005). Test Anxiety and Academic Performance in Undergraduate and Graduate Students. Journal of Educational Psychology, 97, 268– 274.

Corno, L. (1993). The best-laid plans: Modern conceptions of volition and educational research. Educational Researcher, 22, 14 –22.

Diseth, Å., & Kobbeltvedt, T. (2010). A mediation analysis of achievement motives, goals, learning strategies, and academic achievement. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 80, 671– 687.

Elliot, A. J., McGregor, H. A., & Gable, S. (1999). Achievement goals, study strategies, and exam performance: A mediational analysis. Journal of Educational Psychology, 91, 549–563.

Garcia, T., McCann, E., Turner, J., & Roska, L. (1998). Modeling the mediating role of volition in the learning process. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 23, 392–418.

Haarala-Muhonen, A., Lindblom-Ylänne, S., Parpala, A., & Komulainen, E. (2011). High and low achievers’ approaches to learning among first-year law students. Manuscript submitted for publication.

Hailikari, T., Postareff, L., Tuononen, T., Räisänen, M. and Lindblom-Ylänne, S. (in press): Challenges in achieving validity and reliability in assessment. In C. Kreber, C. Anderson, N. Entwistle and J. McArthur (Eds.) Advances and innovations in university assessment and feedback. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press.

Heikkilä, A., & Lonka, K. (2006). Studying in higher education: students’ approaches to learning, self-regulation, and cognitive strategies. Studies in Higher Education, 31, 99– 117.

Heikkilä, A., Niemivirta, M., Nieminen, J., & Lonka, K. (2011). Interrelations among university students’ approaches to learning, regulation of learning, and cognitive and attributional strategies: a person oriented approach. Higher Education, 61, 513 –529.

Hidi, S. (2006). Interest: A unique motivational variable. Educational Research Review 1: 69-82.

Hornby, W. (2003). Assessing Using Grade-related Criteria: a single currency for universities? Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 28, 435–453.

IQ-Research group. (2001). Two questionnaire sets adapted from motivation tests developed by P. Pintrich and P. Ruohotie, “ Learning experiences and motivation” and “Learning strategies”. Unpublished manuscript, University of Helsinki.

Kitsantas A., Winsler, A., & Huie, F. (2008). Self-regulation and ability predictors of academic success during college. A predictive validity study. Journal of Advanced Academics, 20, 42–68.

Knight, P. T. (2002). Assessment in Higher Education: practices in disarray. Studies in Higher Education, 27, 275– 286.

Kosnin, A. M. (2007). Self-regulated learning and academic achievement in Malaysian undergraduates. International Education Journal, 8, 221– 228.

Lindblom-Ylänne, S., & Lonka, K. (1999). Individual ways of interacting with the learning environment–are they related to study success? Learning and Instruction, 9, 1– 18.

Lonka, K., & Ketonen, E. (2012). How to make a lecture course an engaging learning experience. Studies for the Learning Society, No 2-3, 63–74.

Lonka, K., & Lindblom-Ylänne, S. (1996). Epistemologies, conceptions of learning, and study practices in medicine and psychology, Higher Education, 31, 5– 24.

Lynch, D. (2006). Motivational factors, learning strategies and resource management as predictors of course grades. College Student Journal, 40, 423–428.

Mikkonen, J., & Ruohoniemi, M. (2011). How do veterinary students’ motivation and study practices relate to academic success? Journal of Veterinary Medical Education, 28, 298-304.

Nevgi, A. (2002). Measurement of learning strategies–creating a self-rating tool for students of the virtual university. In Niemi, H., & Ruohotie, P. (Eds.) Theoretical Understandings for Learning in the Virtual University (pp. 207–231). Hämeenlinna: Research Centre for Vocational Education.

Nevgi, A., Virtanen, P., & Niemi, H. (2005). On-line Students’ Motivational and Learning Strategies in Higher Education and in Polytechnics. A paper presented in the Annual Conference of American Educational Research Association, 11-16 April 2005, Montréal, Canada.

Niemi, H., Nevgi, A., & Virtanen, P. (2003). Towards Self-Regulation in Web-Based Learning. Journal of Educational Media, 28, 49– 71.

Parpala, A., Lindblom-Ylänne, S., Komulainen, E., Hirsto, L., & Litmanen, T. (2009). Students ’ perceptions of the teachinglearning environment, approaches to learning and their relationship among first- and third-year students. Unpublished manuscript.

Phan, H. P. (2010). Students’ academic performance and various cognitive processes of learning: an integrative framework and empirical analysis. Educational Psychology, 30, 297 –322.

Pintrich, P. R. (Ed.). (1995). Current Issues in Research on Self-regulated Learning: A discussion with Commentaries. Educational Psychologist, 30, 171 –228.

Pintrich, P. R. (1999). The Role of Motivation in Promoting and Sustaining Self-regulated Learning. International Journal of Educational Research, 31, 459– 470.

Pintrich, P.R. (2000). The Role of Goal Orientation in Self-Regulated Learning. In M. Boekaerts, P.R. Pintrich, & M. Zeidner (Eds.), Handbook of Self-Regulation (pp. 451 –502). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Pintrich, P.R. (2000b). The Role of Motivation in Self-Regulated Learning. In P. R. Pintrich, & P. Ruohotie, Conative Constructs and Self-Regulated Learning. Hämeenlinna, Finland: Research Centre for Vocational Education.

Pintrich, P. R. (2004). A conceptual framework for assessing motivation and self-regulated learning in college students. Educational Psychology Review, 16, 385–407.

Pintrich, P. R., & Garcia, T. (1991). Students Goal Orientation and Self-regulation in the College Classroom. In M. L. Maer, & P. R. Pintrich (Eds.), Advances in Motivation and Achievement: Goals and Self-Regulatory Processes (pp. 371 –42). Greenwich, CT: JAI Press, (Vol.7).

Pintrich, P. R., & McKeachie, W. J. (2000). A framework for conceptualizing student motivation and self-regulated learning in the college classroom. In P. R. Pintrich, & P. Ruohotie, Conative Constructs and Self-Regulated Learning. Hämeenlinna, Finland: Research Centre for Vocational Education.

Pintrich, P. R., & Ruohotie, P. (2000). Conative Constructs and Self-Regulated Learning. Hämeenlinna, Finland: Research Centre for Vocational Education.

Pintrich, P. R., Smith, D., Garcia, T., & McKeachie, W. J. (1991). A Manual for the Use of the Motivated Strategies for Learning Questionnaire. Technical Report 91-B-004. The Regents of the University of Michigan.

Pintrich, P. R., Smith, D., Garcia, T., & McKeachie, W. J. (1993). Reliability and predictive validity of the Motivated Strategies For Learning Questionnaire (MSLQ), Educational and Psychological Measurement, 53, 801 –813.

Pintrich, P. R., Wolters, C., & Baxter, G. (2000). Assessing metacognition and self-regulated learning. In Schraw, G., and Impara, J. (Eds.), Issues in the Measurement of Metacognition. Lincoln, NE: Buros Institute of Mental Measurements.

Pintrich, P.R., & Zusho, A. (2007). Student motivation and self-regulated learning in the college classroom. In P. R. Perry & J. C. Smart (Eds.), The scholarship of teaching and learning in higher education: An evidence-based perspective (pp. 731 –810). New York: Springer.

Pressley, M. (1995). More about the development of self-regulation: Complex, long-term, and thoroughly social. Educational Psychologist, 30, 201-212.

Renninger, K. A. (2000). Individual interest and its implications for understanding intrinsic motivation. In Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation, ed. C Sansone and J. M Harackiewicz, 373-404. San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Richardson, M., Abraham, C., & Bond, R. (2012). Psychological Correlated of University Students’ Academic Performance: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 138, 353–387.

Robbins, S. B., Lauver, K., Le, H., Davis, D., Langley, R., & Carlstrom, A. (2004). Do psychosocial and study skill factors predict college outcomes? A meta-analysis. Psychological Bulletin, 130, 261– 288.

Ruohoniemi, M., Parpala, A., Lindblom-Ylänne, S., & Katajavuori, N. (2010). Relationships between students’ approaches to learning, perceptions of the teaching-learning environment, and study success. A case study of third-year veterinary students. Journal of Veterinary Medical Education, 37, 282–288.

Ruohotie, P. (2000). Abilities for Professional Learning. Hämeenlinna, Finland: Research Centre for Vocational Education.

Rytkönen, H., Parpala, A., Lindblom-Ylänne, S., Virtanen, V., & Postareff, L. (2012). Factors affecting bioscience students’ academic achievement. Instructional Science. 40, 241 –256.

Sadler, R. D. (2009). Indeterminacy in the use of preset criteria for assessment and grading. Assessment & Evaluation in Higher Education, 34 (2), 159– 179.

Schunk, D. H. (2001). Social cognitive theory and self-regulated learning. In B. J. Zimmerman, & D. H. Schunk (Eds.), Selfregulated learning and academic achievement: theoretical perspectives (pp. 125–151). Mahwah: Erlbaum.

Schunk, D. H., & Zimmerman, B. J. (2006). Competence and control beliefs: Distinguishing the means and ends. In P. A. Alexander & P. H. Winne (Eds.), Handbook of educational psychology (2nd ed., pp. 349–367). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Sperling, R.A., Howard, B. C., Staley, R., & DuBois, N. (2004). Metacognition and Self-Regulated Learning Constructs. Educational Research and Evaluation, 10, 117 Indeterminacy in the use of preset criteria for assessment and grading. 139.

Tynjälä, P., Salminen, R. T., Sutela, T., Nuutinen, A., & Pitkänen, S. (2005). Factors related to study success in engineering education. European Journal of Engineering Education, 30, 221– 231.

Van Den Hurk, M. (2006). The relation between self-regulated strategies and individual study time, preparation and achievement in a problem-based curriculum. Active Learning in Higher Education, 7, 155 –169.

Vermetten, Y. J., Vermunt, J. D., & Lodewijks, H. G. (1999). A longitudinal perspective on learning strategies in higher education: Different viewpoints towards development. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 69, 221 –242.

Vermunt, J.D. (1998). The regulation of constructive learning processes. British Journal of Educational Psychology, 68, 149– 171.

Vermunt, J. D. (2005). Relations between Student Learning Patterns and Personal and Contextual Factors and Academic Performance. Higher Education, 49, 205–234.

Virtanen, P., & Nevgi, A. (2010). Disciplinary and gender differences among higher education students in self-regulated learning strategies. Educational Psychology 30, 323–347.

Vrugt, A., & Oort, F. J. (2008). Metacognition, achievement goals, study strategies and academic achievement: pathways to achievement. Metacognition Learning, 30, 123– 146.

Winne, P. H. (2001). Self-regulated learning viewed from models of information processing. In B. J. Zimmerman, & D. H. Schunk (Eds.), Self-regulated learning and academic achievement: Theoretical perspectives (pp. 153 –189). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Winne P. H. (2006). How Software Technologies Can Improve Research on Learning and Bolster School Reform. Educational Psychologist, 41 (1), 5-17.

Winne, P. H. (1997). Experimenting to bootstrap self-regulated learning. Journal of Educational Psychology, 89, 397-410.

Winne, P. H., & Jamieson-Noel, D. (2003). Self-regulating studying by objectives for learning: Students’ reports compared to a model. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 28, 259-276.

Winne, P. H., & Jamieson-Noel, D. L. (2002). Exploring students’ calibration of self-reports about study tactics and achievement. Contemporary Educational Psychology, 27, 551-572.

Winne, P., Jamieson-Noel, D., & Muis, K. (2001). Methodological issues and advances in researching tactics, strategies, and self-regulated learning. In P. R. Pintrich & M. L. Maehr (Eds.), Advances in Motivation and Achievement: Vol. 12. New Directions in Measures and Methods (pp. 121– 155). Amsterdam: JAI Press Elsevier Science.

Winne, P., & Perry, N. (2000). Measuring self-regulated learning. In M. Boekaerts, P. R. Pintrich, and M. Zeidner (eds.), Handbook of Self-Regulation (pp. 531 –566). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Zeegers, P. (2004). Student learning in higher education: a path analysis of academic achievement in science. Higher Education Research & Development 23, 35–56.

Zimmerman, B. J. (2000). Attaining self-regulation. A social cognitive perspective. In M. Boekaerts, P. Pintrich, & M. Zeidner (eds.), Handbook of self-regulation (pp. 13-39). San Diego, CA: Academic Press.

Zimmerman, B. J., & Schunk, D. H. (2001). Self-regulated learning and academic achievement: theoretical perspectives. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Zimmerman, B. J., & Schunk, D. H. (2008). Motivation: An essential dimension of self-regulated learning. In D. H. Schunk & B. J. Zimmerman (Eds.), Motivation and self-regulated learning : Theory, research, and applications (pp. 1–30). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates.

Studies for the Learning Society

The Journal of Tallinn University, Department of Adult Education and Baltic Region Association for Research in Adult Education (BARAE)

Journal Information

Cited By

Metrics

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 282 282 100
PDF Downloads 171 171 94