Chemotherapy is one of the most common treatments used in cancer therapy despite its serious side effects, which remain a huge concern. To the most common side effects (apart from weight and hair loss) include memory and concentration problems as well as changes in taste. This paper presents a very preliminary study (with only one elderly female subject participating) focusing on cognitive dysfunction after chemotherapy in breast cancer. This phenomenon, called Cancer-Related Cognitive Dysfunction (CRCD), is a frequent occurrence. The obtained results prove the impact of chemotherapy on the participant’s ability to concentrate. The QEEG method and digital data analysis were used as the measurement methods.
Azarpaikan, A., & Taheri Torbati, H. (2017). Effect of somatosensory and neurofeedback training on balance in older healthy adults: a preliminary investigation. Aging Clinical and Experimental Research. doi:
Blackburn, D., Yifan, Z., Bell, S., De Marco, M., He, F., Wilkinson, I., Farrow, T., et al. (2016). QEEG can distinguish patients with ad and volunteers. Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery & Psychiatry, 87(12). doi:
Britton, J. W., Frey, L. C., Hopp, J. L., Korb, P., Lievens, W. E., Koubeissi, M. Z., Lievens,W. E., et al. (2016). Electroencephalography (EEG): An Introductory Text and Atlas of Normal and Abnormal Findings in Adults, Children, and Infants. Chicago: American Epilepsy Society.
Clarke, A. R., Barry, R. J., McCarthy, R., Selikowitz, M., Johnstone, S. J., Hsu, C. I., Magee, C. A., et al. (2007). Coherence in children with attentiondeficit/ hyperactivity disorder and excess beta activity in their EEG. Clinical Neurophysiology, 118(7), 1472-1479.
Denduluri, N., Somerfield, M. R., & Wolff, A. C. (2016). Selection of Optimal Adjuvant Chemotherapy Regimens for Early Breast Cancer and Adjuvant Targeted Therapy for HER2-Positive Breast Cancer: An American Society of Clinical Oncology Guideline Adaptation of the Cancer Care Ontario Clinical Practice Guideline Summary. Journal of Oncology Practice, 12(5), 485-488. doi:
Hermelink, K., B¨uhner, M., Sckopke, P., Neufeld, F., Kaste, J., Voigt, V., M¨unzel, K., et al. (2017). Chemotherapy and Post-traumatic Stress in the Causation of Cognitive Dysfunction in Breast Cancer Patients. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 109(10). doi:
Jiang, M., Zhang, W.-W., Liu, P., Yu, W., Liu, T., Yu, J. (2017). Dysregulation of SOCS-Mediated Negative Feedback of Cytokine Signaling in Carcinogenesis and Its Significance in Cancer Treatment. Frontiers in Immunology, 8:70. doi:
Johns, S. A., Von, Ah. D., Brown, L. F., Beck-Coon, K., Talib, T. L., Alyea, J. M., Monahan, P. O., et al. (2016). Randomized controlled pilot trial of mind- fulness-based stress reduction for breast and colorectal cancer survivors: effects on cancer-related cognitive impairment. Journal of Cancer Survivorship, 10(3), 437-448. doi:
Markovska-Simoska, S., & Pop-Jordanova, N. (2017). Quantitative EEG in children and adults with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: comparison of absolute and relative power spectra and theta/beta ratio. Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, 48(1), 20-32.
Ramirez, P. M., Desantis, D., & Opler, L. A. (2001). EEG biofeedback treatment of ADD. A viable alternative to traditional medical intervention? Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 931, 342-358.
Ren, X., St. Clair, D. K., & Butterfield, D. A. (2017). Dysregulation of cytokine mediated chemotherapy induced cognitive impairment. Pharmacological Research, 117, 267-273. doi:
Sterman, M. B., & House, M. N. (1980). Quantitative analysis of training, sleep EEG and clinical response to EEG operant conditioning in epileptics. Electroencephalography and Clinical Neurophysiology, 49(5-6), 558-576.
Tan, G., Thornby, J., Hammond, D. C., Strehl, U., Canady, B., Arnemann, K., & Kaiser, D. A. (2009). Meta-analysis of EEG biofeedback in treating epilepsy. Clinical EEG and Neuroscience, 40(3), 173-179.
van Dam, F. S., Schagen, S. B., Muller, M. J., Boogerd, W., vd Wall, E., DroogleeverM. E., & Rodenhuis, S. (1998). Impairment of cognitive function in women receiving adjuvant treatment for high-risk breast cancer: high-dose versus standard-dose chemotherapy. Journal of the National Cancer Institute, 90(3), 210-218.
Von Minckwitz, G., Procter, M. J., De Azambuja, E., Zardavas, D., Knott, A., & Viale, G. (2017). APHINITY trial (BIG 4-11): A randomized comparison of chemotherapy (C) plus trastuzumab (T) plus placebo (Pla) versus chemotherapy plus trastuzumab (T) plus pertuzumab (P) as adjuvant therapy
in patients (pts) with HER2-positive early breast cancer (EBC). Journal of Clinical Oncology, 35(18). doi:
Wefel, J. S., Kesler, S. R., Noll, K. R., & Schagen, S. B. (2015). Clinical characteristics, pathophysiology, and management of noncentral nervous system cancer-related cognitive impairment in adults. CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 65(2), 123-138. doi:
Zabernigg, A., Gamper, E. M., Giesinger, J. M., Rumpold, G., Kemmler, G., Gattringer, K., Sperner-Unterweger, B., & Holzner, B. (2010). Taste Alterations in Cancer Patients Receiving Chemotherapy: A Neglected Side Effect? The Oncologist, 15(8), 913-920. doi: