More Gender Equality, More Homogamy? A Cohort Comparison in Six European Countries

Open access

Abstract

We study whether educational homogamy has increased following the rise of women’s educational attainment and of egalitarian couples in France, Germany, the Netherlands, Spain, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. From the analysis of data from the European Union and Swiss Labour Force Surveys over a 15-year period (1999–2013), we observe that educational homogamy did not increase across cohorts, although we find substantial differences in the degree of homogamy according to couple arrangements.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Birkelund Gunn Elisabeth and Johan Heldal. 2003. Who Marries Whom? Educational Homogamy in Norway. Demographic Research 8(1): 1–30.

  • Blau Peter and Otis Duncan. 1967. The American Occupational Structure. New York: Wiley.

  • Blossfeld Hans-Peter. 2009. Educational Assortative Marriage in Comparative Perspective. Annual Review of Sociology 35(1): 513–530.

  • Blossfeld Hans-Peter. 2007. Linked Lives in Modern Societies. The Impact on Social Inequality of Increasing Educational Homogamy and the Shift Towards Dual-Earner Couples. pp. 275–291 in From Origin to Destination. Trends and Mechanisms in Social Stratification Research edited by Stefani Scherer Reinhard Pollak Gunnar Otte and Markus Gangl. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

  • Blossfeld Hans-Peter and Sonja Drobnič. 2001. Careers of Couples in Contemporary Societies: From Male Breadwinner to Dual Earner Families. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • Blossfeld Hans-Peter and Andreas Timm. 2003. Who Marries Whom? Educational Systems as Marriage Markets in Modern Societies. Dordrecht: Kluwer Academic Publishers.

  • Bouchet-Valat Milan. 2014. Les évolutions de l’homogamie de diplôme de classe et d’origine sociales en France (1969–2011): ouverture d’ensemble repli des élites. Revue française de sociologie 55(3): 459–505.

  • Bozon Michel and Francois Héran. 1989. Finding a Spouse: A Survey of How French Couples Meet. Population: An English Selection 44(1): 91–121.

  • Buchmann Claudia and Thomas A. DiPrete. 2006. The Growing Female Advantage in College Completion: The Role of Family Background and Academic Achievement. American Sociological Review 71(4): 515–541.

  • Bühlmann Felix Guy Elcheroth and Manuel Tettamanti. 2010. The Division of Labour Among European Couples: The Effects of Life Course and Welfare Policy on Value-Practice Configurations. European Sociological Review 26(1):49–66.

  • DiPrete Thomas A. and Claudia Buchmann. 2013. The Rise of Women: The Growing Gender Gap in Education and What It Means for American Schools. New York: Russell Sage Foundation.

  • Drobnič Sonja and Hans-Peter Blossfeld. 2004. Career Patterns Over the Life Course: Gender Class and Linked Lives. Research in Social Stratification and Mobility 21(1): 139–164.

  • Erikson Robert and John H. Goldthorpe. 1992. The Constant Flux: A Study of Class Mobility in Industrial Societies. Oxford: Clarendon Press.

  • Esping-Andersen Gøsta. 2009. Incomplete Revolution: Adapting Welfare States to Women’s New Roles. Cambridge: Polity.

  • Esping-Andersen Gøsta. 1990. The Three Worlds of Welfare Capitalism. Princeton: Princeton University Press.

  • Esping-Andersen Gøsta Diederik Boertien Jens Bonke and Pablo Gracia. 2013. Couple Specialization in Multiple Equilibria. European Sociological Review 29(6):1280–1294.

  • Esteve Albert and Clara Cortina. 2006. Changes in Educational Assortative Mating in Contemporary Spain. Demographic Research 14(17): 405–428.

  • Esteve Albert Joan García-Román and Iñaki Permanyer. 2012. The Gender-Gap Reversal in Education and Its Effect on Union Formation: The End of Hypergamy? Population and Development Review 38(3):535–546.

  • Ferrera Maurizio. 1996. The “Southern Model” of Welfare in Social Europe. Journal of European Social Policy 6(1): 17–37.

  • Grave Barbara S. and Christoph M. Schmidt. 2012. The Dynamics of Assortative Mating in Germany. Rochester NY: Social Science Research Network http://papers.ssrn.com/abstract=2122485 (15.06.2016).

  • Halpin Brendan and Tak Wing Chan. 2003. Educational Homogamy in Ireland and Britain: Trends and Patterns. The British Journal of Sociology 54(4): 473–495.

  • Hou Feng and John Myles. 2008. The Changing Role of Education in the Marriage Market: Assortative Marriage in Canada and the United States Since the 1970s. Canadian Journal of Sociology/Cahiers canadiens de sociologie 33(2): 337–366.

  • Joye Dominique and Julie Falcon. 2016. Soziale Ungleichheiten in der Schweiz: Eine Bestandsaufnahme und aktuelle Herausforderungen. Pp. 21–41 in Ungleichheit(en) und Demokratie edited by Béatrice Ziegler. Zurich: Schulthess.

  • Kalmijn Matthijs. 1998. Intermarriage and Homogamy: Causes Patterns Trends. Annual Review of Sociology 24(1): 395–421.

  • Kerr Clark John Dunlop Frederick Harbison and Charles Myers. 1960. Industrialism and Industrial Man. Cambridge: Harvard University Press.

  • Krüger Helga and René Levy. 2001. Linking Life Courses Work and the Family: Theorizing a Not So Visible Nexus Between Women and Men. Canadian Journal of Sociology 26(1): 145–166.

  • Le Goff Jean-Marie and René Levy. 2016. Devenir Parents Devenir Inégaux. Transition À La Parentalité et Inégalités de Genre. Zurich: Seismo.

  • Le Goff Jean-Marie René Levy Marlène Sapin and Martin Camenisch. 2009. Devenir Parent: Changer de Vie. Pp. 211–232 in Transitions dans les parcours de vie et construction des inégalités edited by Michel Oris Eric Widmer Anik de Ribaupierre Dominique Joye Dario Spini Gisela Labouvie-Vief and Jean-Marc Falter. Lausanne: Presses polytechniques et universitaires romandes.

  • Levy René and Eric Widmer (eds.). 2013. Gendered Life Courses Between Standardization and Individualization: A European Approach Applied to Switzerland. Münster: LIT Verlag.

  • Levy René Dominique Joye Olivier Guye and Vincent Kaufmann. 1997. Tous Égaux ? De La Stratification Aux Représentations. Zurich: Seismo.

  • Oesch Daniel. 2006. Redrawing the Class Map: Stratification and Institutions in Britain Germany Sweden and Switzerland. Basingstoke: Palgrave Macmillan.

  • R Core Team. 2016. R: A Language and Environment for Statistical Computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing Vienna Austria https://www.R-project.org/ (30.06.2016).

  • Raftery Adrian E. 1995. Bayesian Model Selection in Social Research. Sociological Methodology 25: 111–163.

  • Schneider Silke L. 2008. The International Standard Classificaion of Education (ISCED-97). An Evaluation of Content and Criterion Validity for 15 European Countries. Mannheimer Zentrum für Europäische Sozialforschung. Mannheim: Universität Mannheim.

  • Schneider Silke L. Dominique Joye and Christof Wolf. 2016. When Translation Is Not Enough: Background Variables in Comparative Surveys. Pp. 288–307 in The SAGE Handbook of Survey Methodology edited by Christof Wolf Dominique Joye Tom W. Smith and Yang-chih Fu. London: Sage.

  • Schröder Heike and Harry B. G. Ganzeboom. 2014. Measuring and Modelling Level of Education in European Societies. European Sociological Review 30(1): 119–136.

  • Schwartz Christine R. 2013. Trends and Variation in Assortative Mating: Causes and Consequences. Annual Review of Sociology 39(1): 451–470.

  • Schwartz Christine R. and Robert D. Mare. 2005. Trends in Educational Assortative Marriage From 1940 to 2003. Demography 42(4): 621–646.

  • Shavit Yossi and Hans-Peter Blossfeld. 1993. Persistent Inequality: Changing Educational Attainment in Thirteen Countries. Boulder: Westview Press.

  • Shavit Yossi Richard Arum and Adam Gamoran (eds.). 2007. Stratification in Higher Education: A Comparative Study. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

  • Smits Jeroen Wout Ultee and Jan Lammers. 1998. Educational Homogamy in 65 Countries: An Explanation of Differences in Openness Using Country-Level Explanatory Variables. American Sociological Review 63(2): 264–285.

  • Treiman Donald. 1970. Industrialization and Social Stratification. Sociological Inquiry 40(2): 207–234.

  • Van Bavel Jan. 2012. The Reversal of Gender Inequality in Education Union Formation and Fertility in Europe. Vienna Yearbook of Population Research 10: 127–154.

  • Vermunt Jeroen K. 1997. LEM 1.0: A General Program for the Analysis of Categorical Data. Tillburg: Tillburg University.

  • Vincent-Lancrin Stéphan. 2008. The Reversal of Gender Inequalities in Higher Education. Pp. 265–298 in Higher Education to 2030 Volume 1 Demography edited by OECD. Paris: OECD Publishing.

  • Weber Max. 1978. Economy and Society. Berkeley: University of California Press.

  • Widmer Eric. 2010. Family Configurations. A Structural Approach to Family Diversity. London: Ashgate Publishing.

  • Widmer Eric Manuela Schicka Michèle Ernst Stähli Jean-Marie Le Goff and René Levy. 2012. “If I Had Known Our Couple Turned That Way I Would Not Have Stopped Working”: A Biographical Account of Labour Force Participation and Conjugal Love. Sociologia e Politiche Sociali 15(2): 29–49.

  • Xie Yu. 1992. The Log-Multiplicative Layer Effect Model for Comparing Mobility Tables. American Sociological Review 57(3): 380–395.

Search
Journal information
Impact Factor


CiteScore 2018: 0.24

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.141
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.087

Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 328 157 5
PDF Downloads 171 91 4