Attitudes of Slovenian elderly people towards fall prevention

Darja Zupan 1  and Irena Košnik 1
  • 1 Zavod za zdravstveno varstvo Kranj, Gosposvetska ulica 12, 4000 Kranj

Odnos Slovenskih Starostnikov Do Preprečevanja Padcev

Izhodišča: Po definiciji so starostniki osebe, stare več kot 64 let. Delež starostnikov narašča in pričakujemo lahko, da se bo zaradi podaljševanja življenjske dobe še povečeval. Najpogostejši vzrok poškodb pri starostnikih so padci. Zaradi staranja prebivalstva tako lahko pričakujemo povečanje števila padcev. Z raziskavo smo želeli ugotoviti: stališče in odnos starostnikov, ki živijo v domačem okolju, do potrebe po gibalni/športni dejavnosti, namenjeni vzdrževanju mišične moči in ravnotežja, želje starostnikov po vključitvi v programe za izboljšanje mišične moči in ravnotežja ter odnos starostnikov do varnostne ocene domačega okolja.

Preiskovanci in metode: Zaposleni v Zavodu za zdravstveno varstvo Kranj (ZZV Kranj) smo sodelovali v mednarodni raziskavi Apollo WP4. Z omenjeno raziskavo smo želeli zlasti pripraviti priporočila glede preprečevanja padcev pri starejših v EU ter izmeriti odnos starostnikov do telesne dejavnosti. Slovenski del raziskave smo izvedli v Zavodu za zdravstveno varstvo Kranj. Za sodelovanje v raziskavi smo zaprosili naključno izbrane starostnike, ki so obiskali ambulanto za cepljenje ZZV Kranj v novembru 2007. V raziskavi je sodelovalo 277 starostnikov v starosti od 65 do 89 let, od tega 183 (66,1 %) žensk in 94 (33,9 %) moških. Njihova povprečna starost je znašala 73 let.

Rezultati: Ugotovili smo, da se 65 % starostnikov močno ali delno strinja z vključitvijo in s sodelovanjem v programih za povečanje mišične moči, 24 % starostnikov je neopredeljenih, 10,9 % starostnikov pa se s sodelovanjem ne strinja. Kar 46 % starostnikov bi želelo (močno ali delno strinjanje), da bi ocenili varnost njihovega doma, 32,5 % starostnikov je neopredeljenih, 21,5 % starostnikov pa se z oceno varnosti doma ne strinja.

S testom χ2 smo dokazali statistično pomembne razlike glede odnosa starostnikov do vadbenih programov, in sicer glede dejavnosti v zvezi z dnevnimi opravili (p<0,01), glede ravni telesne dejavnosti v prostem času (p<0,04) in trenutnega zdravstvenega stanja starostnikov v primerjavi z zdravstvenim stanjem ljudi enake starosti (p<0,02). Statistično pomembnih razlik v odnosu starostnikov do ocene varnosti doma s testom χ2 nismo dokazali.

Zaključki: Padci so posledica staranja oz. slabitve telesnih in duševnih funkcij organizma. Pri starostnikih, ki pogosto doživljajo padce zaradi izgube mišične mase, motenj ravnotežja in okvare vida, lahko število padcev zmanjšamo z izboljšanjem mišične moči in ravnotežja s pomočjo vadbo ter varnejšim domačim okoljem. Pridobljeni podatki o stališčih, odnosu in željah starostnikov glede sodelovanja v vadbenih programih in oceni varnosti domačega okolja so dragoceni, ker omogočajo boljše razumevanje njihovih potreb, na ta način pa omogočajo nove pristope pri uveljavljanju in pripravi intervencijskih (preventivnih ipd.) programov za starostnike.

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