Тhe Impact Of Positive Acceleration (+Gz) on Antioxidant Capacity and Histopathological Alterations in Different Organs and Tissues in Rats

Jelena Ristic 1 , Tamara Nikolic 2 , Jovana Jeremic 2 , Isidora Stojic 2 , Snezana Janicijevic-Hudomal 3 , Mira Popovic 4 , Gordana Arsic-Komljenovic 5 , Radmila Radojevic-Popovic 6 , Ivan Srejovic 7 , and Assistant Professor Vladimir Zivkovic 7
  • 1 Richter Gedeon Representative Office for Serbia, , Belgrade, Serbia
  • 2 Department of Pharmacy, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Kragujevac, , Kragujevac, Serbia
  • 3 Department of Pharmacology, Medical Faculty, University of Pristina, , Kosovska Mitrovica , Serbia
  • 4 Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Sciences, University of Novi Sad, , Novi Sad, Serbia
  • 5 High Medical College of Professional Studies “Milutin Milankovic”, , Belgrade, Serbia
  • 6 Special Hospital for Hyperbaric Medicine, , Belgrade, Serbia
  • 7 Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medical Sciences, University of Kragujevac, , Kragujevac, Serbia

Abstract

Since the early 1940s, a significant amount of research has been conducted to describe the impact of the high-G acceleration on the cardiovascular system. The objective of the present study was to examine the role of the antioxidant enzyme system under biodynamic stress in the liver, heart and gastric mucosa in response to high-magnitude +Gz exposure in a rat model. Twenty adult male Wistar albino rats (10 rats per group; 9-11 weeks old, 200-250 g b.w.) were divided into the following two groups: control and G (exposed to a biodynamic stress model under positive (+7 Gz) acceleration for 40 s). The influence of acute biodynamic stress on pro-oxidative parameters in the rat liver (xanthine oxidase (XOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (Px), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), total content of glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxidation (LPx)) and on histopathological alterations in the liver, cardiac muscle and gastric mucosa was examined. Biodynamic stress resulting from positive (+7 Gz) acceleration resulted in a highly statistically signifi cant increase of CAT GSH-Px activity compared to the control group. The LPx levels were significantly decreased, but the GSH contents and the activities of other enzymes were not significantly changed. Significant microscopic changes in the liver, heart and gastric mucosa were observed in the G group. These results clearly indicate that +Gz acceleration alters biochemical systems. These alterations in cellular processes may be mediated by influences of hypoxia or ischaemia via changes in the antioxidant capacity.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • 1. Lauritzsen LP, Pfitzner J. Pressure breathing in fighter aircraft for G accelerations and loss of cabin pressurization at altitude--a brief review. Can J Anaesth. 2003;50(4):415-9.

  • 2. Fong KL, Fan SW. An overview of the physiological effects of sustained high +Gz forces on human being. Ann Acad Med Singapore. 1997; 26(1):94-103.

  • 3. Convertino VA. High sustained +Gz acceleration: physiological adaptation to high-G tolerance. J Gravit Physiol. 1998; 5: P51-54

  • 4. Stevenson AT, Scott JP, Chiesa S, Sin D, Coates G, Bagshaw M, Harridge S.Blood pressure, vascular resistance, and +Gz tolerance during repeated +Gz exposures. Aviat Space Environ Med. 2014; 85(5):536-42.

  • 5. Burton RR, Leverett SD Jr, Michaelson ED. Man at high sustained +Gz acceleration: a review. Aerosp Med. 1974; 45(10):1115-36.

  • 6. Lu WH, Hsieh KS, Li MH, Ho CW, Wu YC, Ger LP, Wang JS, Chu H. Heart statusfollowing high G exposure in rats and the effect of brief preconditioning. AviatSpace Environ Med. 2008; 79(12):1086-90.

  • 7. Wan X-S, Ware J-H, Zhou Z, et al. Protection against radiation-induced oxidative stress in cultured human epithelial cells by treatment with antioxidant agents. Int J Radiat Oncol Biol Phys. 2006; 64:1475-81.

  • 8. Koppula S, Kumar H, Kim I-S, et al. Reactive oxygen species and inhibitors of inflammatory enzymes, NADPH oxidase, and iNOS in experimental models of Parkinson’s disease. Mediators Inflamm. 2012; 65:1400-15.

  • 9. Aruoma O-I. Free radicals, oxidative stress, and antioxidants in human health and disease. J Am Oil Chem Soc. 1998; 75:199-218.

  • 10. Zhou Y, Wang B, Wang YC, Wu YH, Zhang S, Geng J, Sun XQ. [Apoptosis in myocyte after repeated + Gz exposures in rats]. Zhongguo Ying Yong Sheng Li Xue Za Zhi. 2010; 26(3):275-7.

  • 11. Mapp P-I, Grootveld M-C, Blake D-R. Hypoxia, oxidative stress and rheumatoid arthritis. Br Med Bull. 1995; 51:419-36.

  • 12. Gonzalez Flecha, B., S. Llesuy, and A. Boveris. 1991. Hydroperoxide-initiated chemiluminescence: an assay for oxidative stress in biopsies of liver, heart and muscle. Free Radical Biol. Med. 10:93-100.

  • 13. Benzie I.F.F., Strain J.J. Feric reducing antioxidant power assay: Direct measure of total antioxidant activity of biological fluids and modified version for simultaneous measurement of total antioxidant power and ascorbic acid and concentration. Methods Enzymol. 1999; 299:15-17.

  • 14. Flohe, L., and W. A. Gunzler. Assays of glutathione peroxidase. Methods Enzymol. 1984; 105:114.

  • 15. Wendel A Enzymatic basis of detoxication. New York Academic Press. 1980; pp 333

  • 16. Vives-Bauza C, Starkov A, Garcia-Arumi E. Measurements of the antioxidant enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase. Methods Cell Biol. 2007; 80:379-393 .

  • 17. Blum J, Fridovich I. Inactivation of gluthathione peroxidase by superoxide radical. Arch Biophys. 1985; 240:500.

  • 18. Bergmayer UH. Methoden Der Enzymatischen Analyse. Verlag Chemies, Weinhem, 1970; 483-484,.

  • 19. Hodges GR, Young MJ, Paul T, Ingold KU. How shoud xanthine oxidase generated superoxide yields be measured? Free Radical Bio-logy & Medicine. Vol.29, No. 5:434-441, 2000.

  • 20. Halliwell B., Chirico, S. Lipid peroxidation: its mechanism, measurement and significance, Am. J. Clin. Nutr., 1993; 57:715S-725S.

  • 21. Fischer AH, Jacobson KA, Rose J, Zeller R. Hematoxylin and eosin staining of tissue and cell sections. CSH Protoc. 2008; 49-86.

  • 22. Histopathological alteration of the rat myocardium exposed to repeated high +Gz Biomed Res. 2012; 23: 375-379.

  • 23. Guth PH, Aures D, Paulsen G. Topical aspirin plus HCl gastric lesions in the rat. Cytoprotective effect of prostaglandin, cimetidine, and probanthine. Gastroenterology. 1979; 76(1):88-93.

  • 24. Chen LE, Wu F, Xin YM, Zhao AD, Wang YX, Zhan H. Protective effect of Tianqi Hangli Recipe extract on high sustained positive acceleration stress-induced myocardial mitochondrial injury in rats. Chin J Integr Med. 2014; 54-65.

  • 25. Zhang Z., Zhan H., Geng X C. The progress on +Gz stress-induced injuries of the cardiac structure and function and their mechanisms; Space Med Med Eng. 2001; 14:378-81.

  • 26. Markin A, Juravlyova O, Lukianuk V. Lipid peroxidation and the system of antioxidant defence in humans after hypergravitational influence. J Gravit Physiol. 2004;11(2):P69-70.

  • 27. Li J, Tang HL, Chen Y, Fan Q, Shao YT, Jia M, Wang JC, Yang CM. Malondialdehyde and SOD-induced changes of gastric tissues in acute gastric mucosal injuryunder positive acceleration. Genet Mol Res. 2015; 14(2):4361-8.

  • 28. Shao YT, Li J, Chen Y, Yang CM, Tang HL, Wang JC. [Effects of glutathione on plasma heat shock protein 70 of acute gastric mucosal injury in rats exposed to positive acceleration]. Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi. 2013; 93(46):3708-10.

  • 29. Zhan H, Chen LM, Xin YM, Tang GX, Wen J. Effects of tea polyphenols on cerebral lipid peroxidation, liver and renal functions in rats after repeated +Gz stress. Space Med Med Eng. 1999; 12(1):1-5.

  • 30. Chen LE, Wu F, Xin Y, Zhao A, Sun X, Zhan H. Effect of high sustained +Gz stress on myocardial mitochondrial ultrastructure, respiratory function, and antioxidant capacity in rats. J Physiol Sci. 2013; 63(6):457-64.

  • 31. Burton RR, Jaggars JL. Influence of ethyl alcohol ingestion on a target task during sustained +Gz centrifugation. Aerosp Med. 1974; 45(3):290-6.

  • 32. Burns JW. Influence of ethanol on cardiovascular tolerance to +Gz acceleration. Aerosp Med. 1974; 45(1):19-28.

  • 33. Chen XY, Chen HM, Liu YH, Zhang ZB, Zheng YF, Su ZQ, Zhang X, Xie JH, Liang YZ, Fu LD, Lai XP, Su ZR, Huang XQ. The gastroprotective effect of pogostone from Pogostemonis Herba against indomethacin-induced gastric ulcer in rats. Exp Biol Med (Maywood). 2016; 241(2):193-204.

  • 34. Yang HY, Lee TH. Antioxidant enzymes as redox-based biomarkers: a brief review. BMB Rep. 2015; 48(4):200-8.

  • 35. Lushchak VI. Free radicals, reactive oxygen species, oxidative stresses and their classifications. Ukr Biochem J. 2015; 87(6):11-8.

  • 36. Labat-Robert J, Robert L. Longevity and aging. Role of free radicals and xanthine oxidase. A review. Pathol Biol (Paris). 2014; 62(2):61-6.

  • 37. Higashi Y, Maruhashi T, Noma K, Kihara Y. Oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction: clinical evidence and therapeutic implications. Trends Cardiovasc Med. 2014; 24(4):165-9.

OPEN ACCESS

Journal + Issues

Search