Influenza virus type A is known for its capacity to transform its antigenic structure and create new viral subtypes. The clinical picture varies from non-febrile, mild upper respiratory tract infection to severe or fatal pneumonia. Neurological complications include encephalitis, encephalopathy, Reye’s syndrome and other neurological diseases. Patients with encephalopathy exhibit a disturbed state of consciousness lasting more than 24 hours, and patients with encephalitis exhibit high temperature, focal neurological signs and pathological CSF results in addition to disturbed state of consciousness.
A 54-year old, previously healthy male farmer was hospitalized at the Clinic for Infectious Diseases of the Clinical Centre Kragujevac on the fifth day of disease. In addition to general symptoms of the disease, the clinical picture was dominated by a disturbed state of consciousness (Glasgow Coma Scale score <8). The aetiological agent was an H1N1 influenza A virus, which was isolated from nasopharyngeal secretions. No other causes of infection were demonstrated from both serum and cerebrospinal fluid specimens. Interstitial pneumonia was detected by radiographic examination of the chest. There were also some changes present in the EEG. The patient was cured without consequences.
Because our country is in a whirlwind of pandemic H1N1 virus activity, we should think of all the possible complications that this virus can produce regardless of the epidemiological data and the clinical picture.
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