About Some New Methods of Analytical Philosophy. Formalization, De-formalization and Topological Hermeneutics

Janusz Kaczmarek 1
  • 1 University of Łódź, , Lindleya 3/5 Street, 90-131, Łódź, Poland


In this article I want to continue the characteristics of philosophical methods specific to analytical philosophy, which were and are important for Professor Jan Woleński. So I refer to his work on the methods of analytical philosophy, but I also point out a few new methods that have grown up in the climate of studies of philosophers, especially analytical ontologists. I will therefore describe the following methods: generalization, specialization, formalization, de-formalization and topological hermeneutics. Instead of the term “method” I use interchangeably the terms “operation” or “procedure”. I will show that each of these operations makes an important contribution to ontological investigations, and, in particular, to formal ontology.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • 1. Ajdukiewicz, K. On The Applicability of Pure Logic to Philosophical Problems, In K. Ajdukiewicz The scientific world-perspective and other essays, 1931-1963, Synthese Library, vol. 108, Dordrecht, Holland: D. Reidel Publishing Company, 1978 (1934), pp. 90-94.

  • 2. Ajdukiewicz, K. A Semantical Version of the Problem of Transcendental Idealism, In K. Ajdukiewicz The scientific world-perspective and other essays, 1931-1963, Synthese Library, vol. 108, Dordrecht, Holland: D. Reidel Publishing Company, 1978 (1937), pp. 140-154.

  • 3. Ajdukiewicz, K. The scientific world-perspective and other essays, 1931-1963, Synthese Library, vol. 108, Dordrecht, Holland: D. Reidel Publishing Company, 1978.

  • 4. Bocheński, I. M. The Methods of Contemporary Thought, New York: Harper Torchbooks, 1968 (first ed. Die zeitgenössischen Denkmethoden, Dalp TB, Bd. 304, Bern: Francke, 1954).

  • 5. Czeżowski, T. Logika. Podręcznik dla studiujących nauki filozoficzne (Logic. Handbook for Students of Philosophy), Warszawa: Państwowe Zakłady Wydawnictw Szkolnych, 1949.

  • 6. Glock, H-J. A Wittgenstein Dictionary, Oxford: Blackwell Publishers, 1996.

  • 7. Hempel, C. G., H. Putnam, and W. K. Essler (eds.). Methodology, Epistemology, and Philosophy of Science: Essays in Honour of Wolfgang Stegmüller on the Occasion of his 60th Birth Day, June 3rd, 1983, Reprinted from the Journal Erkenntnis 19 (1, 2 and 3), Springer Verlag, 1983.

  • 8. Husserl, E. Ideas Pertaining to a Pure Phenomenology and to a Phenomenological Philosophy, trans. by F. Kersten, The Hague/Boston/Lancaster: Martinius Nijhoff Publishers, Kluwer Academic Publishers Group (first edition: 1913), 1983.

  • 9. Ingarden, R. Controversy over the Existence of the World, Vol. I, Translated and annotated by A. Szylewicz, Frankfurt am Main: Peter Lang GmbH, Internationaler Verlag der Wissenschaften, pp. 320 (first edition: Kraków: PAU, 1947/48), 2013.

  • 10. Kaczmarek, J. On the Porphyrian Tree Structure and an Operation of Determination, Bulletin of the Section of Logic 31/1, 2002, pp. 37-46.

  • 11. Kaczmarek, J. Indywidua. Idee. Pojęcia. Badania z zakresu ontologii sformalizowanej [Individuals. Ideas. Concepts. Investigating into Formalised Ontology], Łódź: Wyd. Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego, 2008.

  • 12. Kaczmarek, J. What is a Formalized Ontology Today? An Example of IIC, Bulletin of the Section of Logic 37 (3-4), 2008, pp. 233-244.

  • 13. Kaczmarek, J. Atom ontologiczny: atom substancji [Ontological atom – atom of substance], Przegląd Filozoficzny. Nowa Seria R. 25, nr 4 (100), 2016, pp. 131-145.

  • 14. Kaczmarek, J. Ontology in Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus: A Topological Approach, In G. Mras, P. Weigertner, and B. Ritter (eds.), Philosophy of Logic and Mathematics, Berlin/Boston: De Gruyter, pp. 245-262, 2019.

  • 15. Kaczmarek, J. On the Topological Modelling of Ontological Objects: Substance in the Monadology, In B. Skowron (ed.), Polish Contemporary Ontology, Berlin/Boston: De Gruyter, pp. 149-159, 2019.

  • 16. Kuratowski, K. Wstęp do teorii mnogości i topologii, (wraz z dodatkiem R.Engelkinga: Elementy topologii algebraicznej), [Introduction to Set Theory and Topology (with a supplement by R. Engelking: Elements of algebraic topology)], Warsaw: PWN, (see also: Kuratowski, Topology, vol. I, 1966, vol. II, 1968), 1977.

  • 17. Mormann, T. Topology as an Issue for History of Philosophy of Science, In New Challenges to Philosophy of Science Volume 4 of the series The Philosophy of Science in a European Perspective, pp. 423-434, 2013.

  • 18. Porphyry. Introduction (or Isagoge) to the logical Categories of Aristotle, vol. 2, pp. 609-633, (this text was transcribed by Roger Pearse, Ipswich, UK, 2007), see: http://www.tertullian.org/fathers/porphyryisagogue 02 translation.htm#c, 1853.

  • 19. Schulte, O., and J. Cory J. Topology as Epistemology, In B. Smith and W. Żełaniec, Topology for Philosophers, The Monist 79 (1), 1996, pp. 141-147.

  • 20. Skowron, B. The Forms of Extension, In M. Szatkowski M. and M. Rosiak (eds), Substantiality and Causality, Philosophische Analyse/Philosophical Analysis, Berlin/Boston: De Gruyter, 2014, pp. 175-187.

  • 21. Skowron, B. Using Mathematical Modeling as an Example of Qualitative Reasoning in Metaphysics. A Note on a Defense of the Theory of Ideas, Annals of Computer Science and Information Systems 7, pp. 65-68, 2015.

  • 22. Skowron, B. Mereotopology, In J. Seibt, S. Gerogiorgakis, G. Imaguire, and H. Burkhardt (eds.), Handbook of Mereology, Philosophia, München: De Gruyter, pp. 354-361, 2017.

  • 23. Strange, S. K. ’Introduction’ to Porphyry: On Aristotle’s Categories, London: Bristol Classical Press, 1992

  • 24. Wittgenstein, L. Tractatus logico – philosophicus, (first ed. [1921], Logisch – philosophische Abhandlung, In Annalen der Naturphilosophie, Warszawa: BKF, PWN, 1997.

  • 25. Woleński, J. Kierunki i metody filozofii analitycznej [Directions and Methods of Analytical Philosophy], In J. Perzanowski (ed.), Jak filozofować? [How to Philosophise?], Warszawa: PWN, pp. 30-77, 1989

  • 26. Woleński, J. W stronę logiki [Towards Logic], Kraków: Wyd. AUREUS, 1996.

  • 27. Woleński, J. Epistemologia [Epistemology], Warszawa: Wyd. Naukowe PWN, 2005.

  • 28. Wolff, Ch. Philosophia prima sive Ontologia metodo scientifica pertractata qua omnis cognitionis humanae principia continentur, Veronae (comp. Pars I, Caput III: De notione entis), 1789.

  • 29. Wolniewicz, B. Hermeneutyka logiczna [Logical Hermeneutics], Studia Filozoficzne 7, pp. 27-40, 1983.

  • 30. Wolniewicz, B. Ontologia sytuacji [Situation Ontology], Warszawa: PWN, 1985.

  • 31. Wolniewicz, B. Logic and Metaphysics. Studies in Wittgenstein’s Ontology of Facts, Warszawa: Polskie Towarzystwo Semiotyczne (Ed. by Polish Semiotic Association), 1999.


Journal + Issues