A Praxeological Approach to Intentional Action

Open access

Abstract

The concept of Intentional Action is at the core of Praxeology, as developed by the Austrian economist Ludwig von Mises. Under this unique approach, defined as the science of human action and designed to study the field of the social sciences, Mises create “action axiom”: the contention that every acting man more satisfactory state of affairs for a Austrian scholar is able to derive the fundament human action; such as value, scale of value, scarcity, abundance, profit, loss, uncertainty and causality, among others. This paper intends to present the praxeological perspective on intentional action and its epistemologic implications; it also attempts to answer objections to this thesis.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • 1. Anderson W. Mathematics and Economic Analysis Available at https://mises.org/library/mathematics-and-economic-analysis_2002

  • 2. Barnett W. II. The Modern Theory of Consumer Behavior: Ordinal or Cardinal? The Quarterly Journal of Austrian Economics 6 (1) 2003 pp. 41-65.

  • 3. Barnett W. II. Dimensions and Economics: Some Problems Quarterly Journal of Austrian Economics Spring. Vol. 7 No. 1 2004 pp. 95-104.

  • 4. Barnett W.II & W. E. Block. Rothbard on V shaped average and total cost curves Quarterly Journal of Austrian Economics Vol. 9 No. 3 Fall 2006 pp. 61-66.

  • 5. Barnett W. II & W. E. Block. On Hayekian Triangles Procesos De Mercado: Revista Europea De Economia Politica Vol. III No. 2 Fall 2006 pp. 39-141.

  • 6. Barnett W. & W. E. Block. Mises never used demand curves; was he wrong? Ignorant? No: The Antimathematicality of Demand Curves Dialogue Vol. 1 March 2010 pp. 23-31.

  • 7. Batemarco R. Positive Economics and Praxeology: The Clash of Prediction and Explanation Atlantic Economic Journal July 13(2) 1985 pp. 31-27.

  • 8. Binswanger H. How We Know. New York: TOF Publications 2014.

  • 9. Block W. E. A Comment on ‘The Extraordinary Claim of Praxeology’ by Professor Gutierrez Theory and Decision Vol. 3 No. 4 June 1973 pp. 377-387.

  • 10. Block W. E. On Robert Nozick’s ‘On Austrian Methodology’ Inquiry Vol. 23 No. 4 Fall 1980 pp.397-444. Spanish translation Libertas Vol. 14 No. 26 May 1997 pp. 71-131.

  • 11. Block W. E. Austrian Theorizing Recalling the Foundations: Reply to Caplan Quarterly Journal of Austrian Economics Vol. 2 No. 4 1999 pp. 21-39.

  • 12. Block W. E. Realism: Austrian vs. Neoclassical Economics Reply to Caplan Quarterly Journal of Austrian Economics Vol. 6 No. 3 Fall 2003 pp. 63-76.

  • 13. Block W. E. Reply to Caplan on Austrian Economic Methodology Corporate Ownership & Control Vol. 4 No. 2 November 2007 pp. 312-317.

  • 14. Block W. E. Rejoinder to Hoppe on indifference Quarterly Journal of Austrian Economics Vol. 12 No. 1 2009 pp. 52–59.

  • 15. Block W. E. Rejoinder to Machaj on Indifference New Perspectives on Political Economy Vol. 5 No. 1 2009 pp. 65-71.

  • 16. Block W E. &W. Barnett II. Rejoinder to Hoppe on indifference once again Reason Papers Vol. 32 2010 pp. 141-154.

  • 17. Boulding K. E. After Samuelson Who Needs Adam Smith? History of Political Economy Vol. 3 No. 2 1971 pp. 225-237.

  • 18. Brätland J. Human Action and Socially Optimal Conservation: A Misesian Inquiry into the Hotelling Principle The Quarterly Journal of Austrian Economics 3 1 2000 pp. 3-26.

  • 19. Bylund P. The ‘Mystery’ of the Endowment Effect. Available at http://mises.org/daily/5839/The-Mystery-of-the-Endowment-Effect December 28 2011.

  • 20. Callahan G. Logical Economics vs. Mathematical Economics. Available at https://mises.org/library/logical-economics-vs-mathematical-economics February 17 2001.

  • 21. Callahan G. Choice and Preference. Available at https://mises.org/library/choice-and-preference February 10 2003.

  • 22. Caplan B. Why I am not an Austrian Economist Available at http://www.gmu.edu/depts/economics/bcaplan/whyaust.htm Undated.

  • 23. Caplan B. The Austrian Search for Realistic Foundations Southern Economic Journal April Vol. 65 No. 4 1999 pp. 823-838.

  • 24. Caplan B. Probability Common Sense and Realism: A Reply to Huelsmann and Block Quarterly Journal of Austrian Economics; Vol. 2 No. 4 summer 2001 pp. 69-86.

  • 25. Caplan B. Probability and the Synthetic A Priori: A Reply to Block Quarterly Journal of Austrian Economics; Vol. 6 No. 3 Fall 2003 pp. 77-83.

  • 26. Caplan B. The Trojan Horse Example Available at http://econlog.econlib.org/archives/2008/06/the_trojan_hors.html June 16 2008.

  • 27. Champion R. The Rise of Mathematical Economics. Available at http://www.the-rathouse.com/2008/Ingrao-Israel.html 2008

  • 28. Coase R. H. The Problem of Social Cost Journal of Law and Economics 3 1960 pp. 1-44.

  • 29. Dolan E. Austrian Economics as Extraordinary Science In E. Dolan (ed.) The Foundations of Modern Austrian Economics Kansas City: SheedandWard Inc. 1976 pp. 3-18.

  • 30. Fox G. The Pricing of Environmental Goods: A Praxeological Critique of Contingent Valuation Cultural Dynamics Vol. V No. 3 1992 pp. 245-259

  • 31. Gordon S. History and Philosophy of Social Science. London: Routledge 1993.

  • 32. Gossen H.H. Entwickelung der Gesetze des menschlichen Verkehrs und der darausfließenden Regelnfürmenschliches Handeln. Braunschweig: Friedrich Vieweg und Sohn 1854. English translation R. C. Blitz The Laws of Human Relations and the Rules of Human Action Derived There from. Cambridge MA: MIT Press 1983.

  • 33. Garrison R. W. Hayekian Triangles and Beyond in Jack Birner and Rudy van Zijp (eds.) Hayek Coordination and Evolution: His Legacy in Philosophy Politics Economics and the History ofIdeas. London: Routledge 1994 pp. 109-125.

  • 34. Garrison R. W. Time and Money: The Macroeconomics of Capital Structure London: Routledge 2001.

  • 35. Hayek Friedrich A. Prices and Production London: Routledge 1931.

  • 36. Garrison R. W. The Use of Knowledge in Society The American Economic Review Vol. 35 No. 4. (Sep. 1945) pp. 519-530.

  • 37. Garrison R. W. Competition as a Discovery Procedure Institut für Weltwirtschaft Kiel University No 56 Kieler Vorträge series 1968. Trans. Marcellus S. Snow Der Wettbewerbals Entdeckungsverfahren The Quarterly Journal of Austrian Economics Vol. 5 N° 3 (Summer) 2002 pp. 9-23.

  • 38. Garrison R. W. Law Legislation and Liberty: A New Statement of the Liberal Principles of Justice and Political Economy Vol. I Rules and Order Chicago: University of Chicago Press 1973.

  • 39. Garrison R. W. The Pretense of Knowledge. Friedrich A. Hayek’s Nobel Prize Lecture Nobel Prize in Economics Stockholm Sweden 1974. In A Free Market Monetary System and The Pretense of Knowledge Auburn: Ludwig Von Mises Institute 2008.

  • 40. Hazlitt H. The Failure of the “New Economics” New Rochelle NY: Arlington House 1959.

  • 41. Herbener J. M. Calculation and the Question of Mathematics Review of Austrian Economics 9(1) 1996 pp. 151-162.

  • 42. Hoppe H. H. In Defense of Extreme Rationalism: Thoughts on Donald McClosky’s The Rhetoric of EconomicsReview of Austrian Economics 3 1989 pp. 179-214.

  • 43. Hoppe H. H. Austrian Rationalism in the Age of the Decline of Positivism Journal des Economistes et des Etudes Humaines Vol.2 No. 2 1991; reprinted as Hoppe Hans-Hermann. Austrian Rationalism in the Age of the Decline of Positivism In R. M. Ebeling (ed.) Austrian Economics: Perspectives on the Past and Prospects for the Future Vol. 17 Hillsdale MI: Hillsdale College Press 1994 pp. 59-96.

  • 44. Hoppe H. H. On Praxeology and the Praxeological Foundation of Epistemology and Ethics Herbener J. ed. The Meaning of Ludwig von Mises Boston: Dordrecht 1992.

  • 45. Hoppe H. H. Economic Science and the Austrian Method Auburn AL: The Ludwig von Mises Institute 1995.

  • 46. Hoppe H. H. A Note on Preference and Indifference in Economic Analysis The Quarterly Journal of Austrian Economics Vol. 8 No. 4 Winter 2005 pp. 87-91.

  • 47. Hoppe H. H. Austrian Rationalism in the Age of the Decline of Positivism. In The Economics and Ethics of Private Property: Studies in Political Economy and Philosophy Auburn AL: The Mises Institute 2006 2nd ed. pp. 347-379.

  • 48. Hoppe H. H. Further Notes on Preference and Indifference: Rejoinder to Block The Quarterly Journal of Austrian Economics 12 No. 1 2009 pp. 60-64.

  • 49. Hülsmann J. G. Economic Science and Neoclassicism Quarterly Journal of Austrian Economics Vol. 2 Nr 4 1999 pp. 1-20.

  • 50. Hutt W. H. The Keynesian Episode: A Reassessment Indianapolis IN: Liberty Press 1979.

  • 51. Ingrao B. & G. Israel. The Invisible Hand: Economic Equilibrium in the History of Science Transl. by I. McGilvray Cambridge and London: MIT Press 1987 (1990).

  • 52. Ischboldin B. A critique of econometrics Review of Social Economy Vol. 18 No 2 September 1960.

  • 53. Jablecki J. How Many Traders Can You Fit into a Model? Available at https://mises.org/library/how-many-traders-can-you-fit-model August 23 2007

  • 54. Kant I. The Critique of Pure Reason. Project Gutenberg Transl. by J. M. D. Meiklejohn Available at http://www.gutenberg.org/files/4280/4280-h/4280-h.htm 1787 (2013).

  • 55. Kirzner I. Market Theory and the Price System. New York: D. Van Nostrand Co. 1963.

  • 56. Kirzner I. The ‘Austrian’ Perspective on the Crisis In Austrian Economics Vol. 1 Edward Elgar 1990 pp. 191-202.

  • 57. Kotarbinski T. Praxiology – An Introduction to the Sciences of Efficient Action Trans. by O. Wojtasiewicz Pergamon Press 1965.

  • 58. Leoni B. & E. Frola. On mathematical thinking in economics The Journal of Libertarian Studies Vol. 1 No. 2 1977 pp. 101-110.

  • 59. Long R. T. Anti-Psychologism in Economics: Wittgenstein and Mises The Review of Austrian Economics 17:4 Kluwer Academic Publishers 2004 pp. 345-369.

  • 60. Machaj M. A Praxeological Case for Homogeneity and Indifference New Perspectives on Political Economy Vol. 3 No. 2 2007 pp. 231-238.

  • 61. Menger K. Austrian Marginalism and Mathematical Economics In Carl Menger and the Austrian School of Economics J.R. Hicks & W. Weber(eds.) Oxford: Clarendon Press 1973.

  • 62. Mises L. von. Socialism: An Economic and Sociological Analysis New Haven: Yale University Press 1922 (1962).

  • 63. Mises L. von. Epistemological Problems of Economics Auburn: Ludwig Von Mises Institute 1933 (2003).

  • 64. Mises L. von. The Equations of Mathematical Economics and the Problem of Economic Calculation in a Socialist State The Quarterly Journal of Austrian Economics Vol. 3 N° 1 (Spring) 1938 (2000) pp. 27-32.

  • 65. Mises L. von. Human Action – A Treatise on Economics The Scholar’s Edition Auburn: Ludwig Von Mises Institute 1949 (1998).

  • 66. Mises L. von. Theory and History – An Interpretation of Social and Economic Evolution Auburn: Ludwig Von Mises Institute 1957 (2007).

  • 67. Mises L. von. The Ultimate Foundation of Economic Science – An Essay on Method New York: Van Nostrand 1962.

  • 68. Mises L. von. Comments about the mathematical treatment of economic problems The Journal of Libertarian Studies Vol. 1 No. 2 1977 pp. 97-100.

  • 69. Menger C. Principles of Economics Auburn: The Ludwig Von Mises Institute 1871 (2007).

  • 70. Mirowski P. Against Mechanism: Protecting Economics from Science Rowman & Littlefield 1988.

  • 71. Moorhouse J C. A Critical Review of Mises on Mathematical Economics History of Economics Review Vol. 20 Issue 1 1993.

  • 72. Murphy R. P. Austrian Realists Available at https://mises.org/library/austrian-realists July 17 2008.

  • 73. Murphy R. P. R. Wutscher W. E. Block. Mathematics in Economics: An Austrian Methodological Critique Philosophical Investigations Vol. 33 No 1 2010 pp. 44-66.

  • 74. Nozick R. On Austrian Methodology Synthese Vol. 36 1977 pp. 353-392; Reprinted in Socratic puzzles Harvard University Press 1997.

  • 75. O’Neill B. Choice and Indifference: A Critique of the Strict Preference Approach Quarterly Journal of Austrian Economics Vol. 13 No.1 2010 pp. 71-98.

  • 76. Polleit T. Mises’s Apriorism Against Relativism in Economics Available at https://mises.org/library/misess-apriorism-against-relativism-economics April 25 2008.

  • 77. Polleit T. True Knowledge from A Priori Theory Available at http://mises.org/daily/5349/True-Knowledge-from-A-Priori-Theory June 8 2011.

  • 78. Popper K. The Poverty of Historicism London: Routledge 1957 (2002).

  • 79. Quine W. V. Two Dogmas of Empiricism The Philosophical Review Vol. 60 No. 1. January 1951 pp. 20-43.

  • 80. Reekie W. D. The Austrian Response at a Micro Level In Markets Entrepreneurs and Liberty Wheatsheaf Books 1984 pp. 27-55

  • 81. Reekie W. D. The Austrian Macro Retort In. Markets Entrepreneurs and Liberty Wheatsheaf Books 1984 pp. 56-84.

  • 82. Rizzo M. J. Praxeology and Econometrics: A Critique of Positivist Economics In L. M. Spadaro (ed.) New Directions in Austrian Economics Kansas City: Sheed Andrews and McMeel 1978.

  • 83. Rizzo M. J. The Problem of Rationality: Austrian Economics Between Classical Behaviorism and Behavioral Economics In P. J. Boettke Ch. J. Coyne The Oxford Handbook of Austrian Economics New York: Oxford University Press 2015 pp. 364-392.

  • 84. Ropke W. The Place of Economics Among the Sciences In M. Sennholz (ed.) On Freedom and Free Enterprise Princeton NJ: D. Van Nostrand Co. 1956 pp. 111-127.

  • 85. Rothbard M. N. Praxeology: Reply to Mr. Schuller American Economic Review December Vol. 41 No. 5 1951 pp. 943-946.

  • 86. Rothbard M. N. The Mantle of Science In The Logic of Action One Cheltenham UK: Edward Elgar 1997 pp. 3-23. Originally published in H. Schoek & J. W Wiggins (eds.) Scientism and Values 1960.

  • 87. Rothbard M. N. Man Economy and State. Scholar’s Edition Second Edition. Auburn: Ludwig Von Mises Institute 1962 (2009).

  • 88. Rothbard M. N. Lange Mises and Praxeology: The Retreat from Marxism Toward Liberty. Vol. II Menlo Park CA: Institute for Humane Studies 1971 pp. 307-321. Reprinted in The Logic of Action One: Method Money and the Austrian School Glos UK: Edward Elgar Publishing Ltd. 1997 pp. 384-396.

  • 89. Rothbard M. N. Praxeology and the Method of Economics Phenomenology and the Social Sciences M. Natanson(ed.) Evanston IL: Northwestern University Press vol. 2 1973 pp. 311-342; and Austrian Economics: A Reader Vol. 18 Richard M. Ebeling (ed.) Hillsdale MI.: Hillsdale College Press 1991 pp. 55-91.

  • 90. Rothbard M. N. Toward a Reconstruction of Utility and Welfare Economics San Francisco: Center for Libertarian Studies 1977 Occasional Paper #3.

  • 91. Rothbard M. N. Chaos Theory: Destroying Mathematical Economics from Within? The Free Market Vol. VI No. 3 1988.

  • 92. Rothbard M. N. Praxeology as the Method of the Social Sciences In M. N. Rothbard (ed.) The Logic of Action One Edward Elgar Publishing Limited 1997 pp.28-57.

  • 93. Rothbard M. N. Praxeology: The Methodology of Austrian Economics In M. N. Rothbard (ed.) The Logic of Action One Edward Elgar Publishing Limited 1997 pp.58-77.

  • 94. Rothbard M. N. Praxeology Value Judgments and Public Policy In M. N. Rothbard (ed.) The Logic of Action One Edward Elgar Publishing Limited 1997 pp.78-99.

  • 95. Rothbard M. N. In Defense of ‘Extreme Apriorism’ Southern Economic Journal January 1957 pp. 314-320; reprinted in M. N. Rothbard (ed.) The Logic of Action One Edward Elgar Publishing Limited 1997 pp.100-108.

  • 96. Rothbard M. N. Daniel Bernoulli and the Founding of Mathematical Economics Available at https://mises.org/library/daniel-bernoulli-and-founding-mathematical-economics February 10 2011.

  • 97. Selgin G. A. Praxeology and Understanding: An Analysis of the Controversy in Austrian Economics Review of Austrian Economics (2) 1988 pp. 19-58; and Praxeology and Understanding Auburn AL: Ludwig von Mises Institute 1990.

  • 98. Scarano E. R. El Apriorismo de Ludwig Von Mises Revista Libertas N° 40. Available at http://www.eseade.edu.ar/files/Libertas/1_2_Scarano.pdf Mayo 2004.

  • 99. Scarano E. R. Las Dificultades de la Metodología Miseana Congreso Internacional “La Escuela Austríaca en el Siglo XXI” Rosario Argentina. Available at http://austrianeconomicsconference.org/ponencias/2006/Scarano01.pdf 2006

  • 100. Shostak F. What is Wrong with econometrics? Available at https://mises.org/library/what-wrong-econometrics April 17 2002.

  • 101. Smith V. Reflections on Human Action After 50 Years Cato Journal Vol. 19 No. 2. Fall. Cato Institute 1999.

  • 102. Spadaro L. M. Averages and Aggregates in Economics In M. Sennholz (ed.) On Freedom and Free Enterprise Princeton NJ: D. Van Nostrand Co. 1956 pp. 140-60.

  • 103. Wittgenstein L. Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus Trans. by D. F. Pears & B. F. McGuinness London: Routledge 1961.

  • 104. Wisdom J. Proceedings of the Aristotelian Society Vol. XX In Other Minds Berkeley and Los Angeles: University of California Press 1968.

  • 105. Wutscher R. Foundations in economic methodology: The use of mathematics by mainstream economics and its methodology by Austrian economics Available at http://www.mises.org/journals/scholar/Wutscher.pdfUnpublished

  • 106. Zanotti G. Fundamentos Filosóficos y Epistemológicos de la Praxeología Tesis Doctoral Instituto Acton 1990 (2004).

Search
Journal information
Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 334 189 10
PDF Downloads 149 102 4