Religion’s Possible Role in Facilitating Eusocial Human Societies. A Behavioral Biology (Ethological) Perspective

Open access

Abstract

Eusociality is the most successful animal social system on earth. It is found in many social insects, a few crustacean species, and only three vertebrates: two African naked mole rats and human beings. Eusociality, so unusual for a vertebrate, is one of main factors leading to human beings becoming the most successful land vertebrate on earth by almost any measure. We are also unique in being the only land vertebrate with religions. Could the two be related? This article will present evidence, illustrated primarily with Judaism and Christianity, that these two seemingly unrelated social systems – eusociality and religion – that correlate temporally in our evolution, are possibly related. Evidence will also be presented that a (mostly) non-reproducing exemplar caste of celibate clergy was a eusocial-facilitating aspect of religion in western social evolution.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • 1. Abbott E. A History of Celibacy. Da Capo Press: Cambridge MA 1992.

  • 2. Axelrod R. The Evolution of Cooperation. Basic Books Inc.: New York 1984.

  • 3. Barraza J. A. Zak P. J. Empathy Toward Strangers Triggers Oxytocin Release and Subsequent Generosity. Ann. N.Y. Acad. Sci 1167 2009 pp. 182-189.

  • 4. Batra S. W. T. Behavior of Some Social and Solitary Halictine Bees within Their Nests: A Comparative Study (Himenoptera: Halictidae). Journal of the Kansas Entomological Society 41(1) 1968 pp. 120-133.

  • 5. Batson D. C. The Altruism Question: Towards a Social-Psychological Answer. Psychology Press: Hove UK 1991.

  • 6. Bellah R. N. Religion in Human Evolution: From the Paleolithic to the Axial Age. The Belknap Press of Harvard University: Cambridge MA 2011.

  • 7. Bender J. Kiersz A. Rosen A. Some States Have Much Higher Enlistment Rates Than Others Business Insider. 2014 http://www.businessinsider.com/us-military-is-not-representative-of-country-2014-7.

  • 8. Bestelmeyer P. E. G. Belin P. Ladd D. R. A Neural Marker for Social Bias towards In-Group Accents. Cerebral Cortex 2014 pp. 1-9.

  • 9. Betzig L. Medieval Monogamy. Journal of Family History 20(2) 1995 pp. 181-216.

  • 10. Betzig L. Means Variances and Ranges in Reproductive Success: Comparative Evidence. Evolution and Human Behavior 33 2012 pp. 309-317.

  • 11. Boehm C. Hierarchy in the Forest: The Evolution of Egalitarian Behavior. Harvard University Press: Cambridge MA 1999.

  • 12. Boehm C. Moral Origins: The Evolution of Virtue Altruism and Shame. Basic Books: New York 2012.

  • 13. Bowles S. Gintis H. A Cooperative Species: Human Reciprocity and its Evolution. Princeton University Press: Princeton 2011.

  • 14. Brooks A. C. Gross National Happiness: Why Happiness Matters for Americans - and How We Can Get More of It. Basic Books: New York 2008.

  • 15. Bruneau E. G. Attitudes Towards the Out-Group are Predicted by Activity in the Precuneus in Arabs and Israelis. Neuroimage 52(4) 2010 pp. 1704-1711.

  • 16. Bruneau E. G. Dufour N. Saxe R. Social Cognition in Members in Conflict Groups: Behavioral and Neural Responses in Arabs Israelis and South Americans to Each Others’ Misfortunes. Phil. Trans. R. Soc. B. 367 2012 pp. 717-730.

  • 17. Bulbulia J. et al. (eds.) The Evolution of Religion: Studies Theories & Critiques. Collins Foundation Press: Santa Margarita CA 2008.

  • 18. Burdette A. M. et al. Serving God and country? Religious Involvement and Military Service among Young Men. Journal Scientific Study of Religion 48(4) 2009 pp. 794-904.

  • 19. Campbell J. The Many Faces of God: Science’s 400-Year Quest for Images of the Divine. W. W. Norton & Company: New York 2006.

  • 20. Carr L. et al. Neural Mechanisms of Empathy in Humans: A Relay from Neural Systems for Imitation to Limbic Areas. PNAS 100(9) 2002 pp. 5497-5502.

  • 21. Catechism of the Catholic Church (2nd ed.). Doubleday: New York NY 1995.

  • 22. Chak S. T. C. Bauer R. Thiel M. Social Behavior and Recognition in Decapod Shrimps with Emphasis on the Caridea. In. L. Aquiloni E. Tricarico (eds.). Social Recognition in Invertebrates: The Knowns and the Unknowns. Springer: Berlin 2015 pp. 57-84

  • 23. Cloninger R. C. The Psychobiological Regulation of Social Cooperation. Nat Med 1 1995 pp. 623-625.

  • 24. Cloninger R. C. Kedia S. The Phylogenesis of Human Personality: Indentifying the Precursors of Cooperation Altruism and Well-Being. In. R. W. Sussman C. R. Cloninger (eds.). Origins of Altruism and Cooperation Springer: New York 2011 pp. 63-107.

  • 25. Cochini C. Apostolic Origins of Priestly Celibacy. Ignatius Press: San Francisco CA 1990.

  • 26. Cooper A. Raw Data: Religious Preferences in the Military 2009. http://ac360.blogs.cnn.com/2009/11/12/raw-data-religious-preference-in-the-military/

  • 27. Cram L. et al. Implicit Indicators of National Identity Modulate Brain Activation When Processing Empathy for In-Group and Out-Group Members in Pain. Abstract from BNA 2015 Festival of Neuroscience Edinburgh United Kingdom 2015 pp. 671-672.

  • 28. Dawkins R. The Selfish Gene. Oxford University Press: Oxford 1978.

  • 29. De Cantanzaro D. Suicide and Self-Damaging Behavior: A Sociobiological Perspective. Academic Press: New York 1981.

  • 30. Decety J. The Neural Pathways Development and Functions of Empathy. Current Opinion in Behavioral Sciences 3 2015 pp. 1-6.

  • 31. Decety J Ickes W. The Social Science of Empathy. The MIT Press: Cambridge MA 2009.

  • 32. De Dreu C. K. W. et al. Oxytocin Promotes Human Ethnocentrism. PNAS 108(4) 2011 pp. 1262-1266.

  • 33. de Vignemont F. Singer T. The Empathic Brain: How When and Why? Trends in Cognitive Science 10(10) 2006 pp. 435-441.

  • 34. de Waal F. Chimpanzee Politics. John Hopkins University Press: Baltimore 2007.

  • 35. de Waal F. The Age of Empathy: Nature’s Lessons for a Kinder Society. Three Rivers Press: New York: 2009.

  • 36. de Waal F. The Bonobo and the Atheist: In Search of Humanism among the Primates. W. W. Norton & Company: New York 2013.

  • 37. Diaz-Munoz S. L. Cooperating to Compete: Altruism Sexual selection and Causes of Male Reproductive Cooperation. Animal Behavior 88 2013 pp. 67-78.

  • 38. Duffy J. E. Eusociality in a Coral-Reef Shrimp. Nature 381 (6 June) 1996 pp. 512-514.

  • 39. Dunkel C. S. Dutton E. Religiosity as a Predictor of In-Group Favoritism within and between Religious Groups. Personality and individual differences 98 2016 pp. 311-314.

  • 40. Dyshniku F. et al. Minor Physical Anomalies as a Window into Prenatal Origins of Pedophilia. Arch Sexual Behavior 44(3) 2015 pp. 215-259.

  • 41. Eibl-Eibesfeldt I. Ethology: The Biology of Behavior 2nd Edition. Holt Rinehart and Winston Inc.: New York 1975.

  • 42. Eibl-Eibesfeldt I. Human Ethology. Aldine de Gruyter: New York 1989.

  • 43. Eibl-Eibesfeldt I. Dominance Submission and Love: Sexual Pathologies from the Perspective of Ethology. In. J. R. Feierman (ed.). Pedophilia: Biosocial Dimensions. Springer: New York 1990 pp. 150-175.

  • 44. Eibl-Eibesfeldt I. Us and Others: The Familial Roots of Ethnonationalism. In. I. Eibl-Eibesfeldt F. K. Slater (eds.). Ethnic Conflict and Indoctrination: Altruism and Identity in Evolutionary Perspecive Berghahn Books: New York 1998 pp. 21-53.

  • 45. Eisenberg N. Miller P. A. The Relation of Empathy to Prosocial and Related Behaviors. Psychological Bulletin 101(1) 1987 pp. 91-119.

  • 46. Eliade M. Patterns in Comparative Religion. Meridian Books: New York 1958.

  • 47. Erdos R. Ortiz A. American Indian Myths and Legends. Pantheon Books: New York 1984.

  • 48. Feierman J. R. A Biosocial Overview of Adult Human Sexual Behavior with Children and Adolescents. In. J. R. Feierman (ed.). Pedophilia: Biosocial Dimensions Springer: New York 1990 pp. 8-68.

  • 49. Feierman J. R. (ed.). The Biology of Religious Behavior: The Evolutionary Origins of Faith and Religion Praeger/ABC-CIO: Santa Barbara CA 2009.

  • 50. Feierman J. R. How Some Major Components of Religion Could Have Evolved by Natural Selection. In. E. Voland W. Schiefenhövel (eds.). The Biological Evolution of Religious Mind and Behavior. Springer Berlin 2009 pp. 51-66

  • 51. Feierman J. R. The Evolutionary History of Religious Behavior. In. J. R. Feierman (ed.). The Biology of Religious Behavior: The Evolutionary Origins of Faith and Religion Praeger/ABC-CIO: Santa Barbara CA 2009 pp. 71-86.

  • 52. Feierman J. R. Pedophilia: Its Relationship to the Homosexualities and the Roman Catholic Church Parts I and II. Antonianum LXXXXV (3 4) 2010 https://www.academia.edu/4176446/Pedophilia_Its_Relationship_to_the_Homosexualities_and_the_Roman_Catholic_Church_Part_I pp. 451-477 https://www.academia.edu/4176464/Pedophilia_Its_Relationship_to_the_Homosexualities_and_the_Roman_Catholic_Church_Part_II 617-649.

  • 53. Feierman J. R. The Image of the God to Whom We Pray: An Evolutionary Psychobiological Perspective. Pensamiento 67(254) 2011 https://www.academia.edu/4176259/The_Image_of_the_God_to_Whom_We_Pray_An_Evolutionary_Psychobiological_Perspective pp. 817-829.

  • 54. Feierman J. R. The Biology of Religious Belief Emotion and Behavior: A Natural Science Perspective. In. D. Evers et al. (eds.). Studies in Science and Theology. Yearbook of the European Society for the Study of Science and Theology 15 (2015/2016) 2016 https://www.academia.edu/24397969/The_Biology_of_Religious_Belief_Emotion_and_Behavior_A_Natural_Science_Perspective pp. 41-62.

  • 55. Galen L. W. Does Religious Belief Promote Prosociality? A Critical Examination. Psychological Bulletin 138(5) 2012 pp. 876-906.

  • 56. Gallese V. The ‘Shared Manifold’ Hypothesis: From Mirror Neurons to Empathy. Journal of Consciousness Studies 8(5-7) 2001 pp. 33-50.

  • 57. Goodwin G. Myths and Tales of the White Mountain Apache. The University of Arizona Press: Tucson 1994.

  • 58. Gowdy J. Krall L. The Economic Origins of Ultrasociality. Behav Brain Sci Apr 27 2015 pp. 1-63.

  • 59. Grammer K. Signale der Liebe: Die Biologischen Gesetze der Partnerschaft. Deutscher Taschenbuch Verlag GmbH & Co. KG: München 1995.

  • 60. Gronbjerg K. A. Never B. The Role of Religious Networks and Other Factors in Types of Volunteer Work. Nonprofit Management and Leadership 14 2004 pp. 263-289.

  • 61. Hager R. Jones C. B. (eds.). Reproductive Skew in Vertebrates: Proximate and Ultimate Causes. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge 2009.

  • 62. Hamilton W. D. The Genetical Theory of Social Behavior Parts I and II. Journal of Theoretical Biology 12(1) 1964 pp. 12-45.

  • 63. Hammer M. F. et al. Sex-Biased Evolutionary Forces Shape Genomic Patterns of Human Diversity. PLOS Genetics Sept. 36 2008 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 64. Hardy A. The Biology of God: A Scientist’s Study of Man the Religious Animal. New York: Taplinger Publishing Company 1975.

  • 65. Harris L. T. Fiske S. T. Dehumanizing the Lowest of the Low: Neuroimaging Responses to Extreme Out-Groups. Psychological Science 17(10) 2006 pp. 847-853.

  • 66. Heid S. Celibacy in the Early Church: The Beginning of a Discipline of Obligatory Continence for Clerics in East and West. Ignatius Press: San Francisco CA 2000.

  • 67. Herzmann G. Curran T. Neural Correlates of the In-Group Memory Advantage on the Encoding and Recognition of Faces. PLOS ONE 8(12) 2013 e82797. http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0082797.

  • 68. Hill K. R. et al. Co-Residence Patterns in Hunter-Gather Societies Show Unique Human Social Structure. Science 331(6022) 2011 pp. 1286-1289.

  • 69. Hobson N. M. Inzlicht M. The Mere Presence of an Out-Group Member Disrupts the Brain’s Feedback-Monitoring System. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience 2016 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 70. Hrdy S. B. Mothers and Others: The Evolutionary Origins of Mutual Understanding. The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press: Cambridge MA 2009.

  • 71. Jacob S. et al. Paternally Inherited HLA Alleles Are Associated with Women’s Choice of Male Odor. Nature Genetics 30 2002 pp. 175-179.

  • 72. James W. Biological and Psychosocial Determinants of Male and Female Sexual Orientation. Journal of Biological Science 37(5) 2005 pp. 555-567.

  • 73. Joiner et al. Suicide as a Derangement of the Self-Sacrificial Aspect of Eusociality. Psychological Review 123(3) 2016 pp. 235-254.

  • 74. Kandler C. et al. The Genetic and Environmental Roots of Variance in Negativity toward Foreign Nationals. Behav Genet 45(2) 2015 pp. 181-199.

  • 75. Knutson K. M. Politics on the Brain: An fMRI Investigation. Soc. Neurosci. 1(1) 2007 pp. 25-40.

  • 76. Korte A-M. de Haardt M. The Boundaries of Monotheism: Interdisciplinary Explorations into the Foundations of Western Monotheism. Brill: Leiden 2009.

  • 77. Krasnec M. O. Breed M. D. Eusocial Evolution and the Recognition System in Social Insects. Adv Exp Med Biol 739 2012 pp. 78-92.

  • 78. Kruger D. J. Socio-Demographic Factors Intensifying Male Mating Competition Exacerbate Male Mortality Rates. Evolutionary Psychology 8(2) 2010 pp. 194-204.

  • 79. Kruger D. J. Fitzgerald C. J. Understanding Sex Differences in Human Mortality Rates through Tinbergen’s Four Questions. Human Ethology Bulletin 26(2) 2011 pp. 8-24.

  • 80. Lankford A. Is Suicide Terrorism Really the Product of an Evolved Sacrificial Tendency? A Review of Mammalian Research and Application of Evolutionary Theory. Comprehensive Psychology 4 article 21 2015. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 81. Lazerwitz B. Membership in Voluntary Associations and Frequency of Church Attendance. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion 2 1962 pp. 74-84.

  • 82. Leeming D. A. Leeming M. A. Dictionary of Creation Myths. Oxford University Press: Oxford 1994.

  • 83. Leighton D. R. Gibbons: Territoriality and Monogamy. In. B. B. Smuts et al. (eds.). Primate Societies (pp. 135-145). University of Chicago Press: Chicago 1986.

  • 84. Lipka M. How Highly Religious Americans’ Lives Are Different from Others 2016. http://www.pewresearch.org/fact-tank/2016/04/12/how-highly-religious-americans-lives-are-differentfrom-others/.

  • 85. Lorenz K. V. Analogy as a Source of Knowledge. Science 185(4147) 1974 pp. 229-234.

  • 86. Luo S. et al. Oxytocin Receptor Gene and Racial In-Group Bias in Empathy-Related Brain Activity. Neuroimage 110 2015 pp. 22-31.

  • 87. Luy M. Causes of Male Excess Mortality: Insights from Cloistered Populations. Population and Development 39(4) 2003 pp. 647-676.

  • 88. Lynch J. H. The Medieval Church. Longman: London 1992.

  • 89. MacDonald K. The Establishment and Maintenance of Socially Imposed Monogamy in Western Europe. Politics and the Life Sciences 14 1995 pp. 2-23.

  • 90. Mackey W. C. Fathering Behaviors: The Dynamics of the Man-Child Bond. Plenum Press: New York 1985.

  • 91. Martin L. H. Wiebe D. Pro- and Assortative-Sociality in the Formation and Maintenance of Religious Groups. Journal for the Cognitive Science of Religion 2(1) 2014 pp. 1-57.

  • 92. Mitchell R. W. A Comparative-Developmental Approach to Understanding Imitation. In. P. Bateson & P. Klopfer (eds.). Perspectives in Ethology Volume 7: Alternatives Plenum Press: New York 1987 pp. 183-215.

  • 93. Molenberghs P. et al. Increased Moral Sensitivity for Outgroup Perpetrators Harming In-Group Members. Cerebral Cortex 26(1) 2016 pp. 225-233.

  • 94. Monsma S. V. Religion and Philanthropic Giving and Volunteerism: Building Blocks for Civic Responsibility. Interdisciplinary Journal of Religious Research 3 2007 pp. 2-28.

  • 95. Moussaid M. et al. Social Influence and the Collective Dynamics of Opinion Formation. PLOS ONE 8(11) 2013 doi:

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 96. Neusner J. Chilton B. Altruism in World Religions. Georgetown University Press: Washington D. C. 2005.

  • 97. New American Bible. World Catholic Press: Totowa NJ 1987.

  • 98. Norenzayan A. et al.. The Cultural Evolution of Prosocial Religions. Behavioral and Brain Sciences 2014. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 99. Nowak M. A. Highfield R. SuperCooperators: Altruism Evolution and Why We Need Each Other to Succeed. Free Press: New York 2011.

  • 100. Nowak M. A. Sigmund K. Evolution of Indirect Reciprocity. Nature 437(17 October) 2005 pp. 1291-1298.

  • 101. Nowak M. A. Tarnita C. E. Wilson E. O. The Evolution of Eusociality. Nature 466 (26 August) 2010 pp. 1057-1062.

  • 102. Oman D. Spiritual Modeling and the Social Learning of Spirituality and Religion. In. K. Pargament (ed.). APA Handbook of Psychology Religion and Spirituality: Vol 1. Context Theory and Research.American Psychological Association Press: Washington D. C. 2013 pp. 187-204.

  • 103. O’Riain M. J. Jarvis J. U. M. Colony Member Recognition and Xenophobia in the Naked Mole Rat. Animal Behavior 53(3) 1997 pp. 487-498.

  • 104. Oviedo L. Religious Attitudes and Prosocial Behavior: A Systematic Review of Published Research. Religion Brain and Behavior 6(2) 2016 pp. 169-184.

  • 105. Oxford English Dictionary. Oxford University Press: Oxford 2016. https://en.oxforddictionaries.com/definition/caste

  • 106. Pharoah C. Tanner S. Trends in Charitable Giving. Fiscal Studies 18 1997 pp. 427-443.

  • 107. Phelps E. A. Emotion and Cognition: Insights from Studies of the Human Amygdala. Annu Rev Psychol 57 2006 pp. 27-53.

  • 108. Phipps W. E. Clerical Celibacy: The Heritage. Continuum: New York NY 2004.

  • 109. Powers S. T. van Schaik C. P. Lehmann L. How Institutions Shaped the Last Major Evolutionary Transition to Large-Scale Human Societies. Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2016 371(1687): 20150098. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 110. Purzycki B. G. Moralistic Gods Supernatural Punishment and the Expansion of Human Sociality. Nature 530(7590) 2016 pp. 327-330.

  • 111. Rappaport R. A. Ritual and Religion in the Making of Humanity. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge 1999.

  • 112. Ratner K. G. Amodio D. M. Seeing ‘Us’ vs. ‘Them’: Minimal Group Effects on the Neural Encoding of Faces. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology 49 2013 pp. 298-301.

  • 113. Reichard G. A. Navajo Religion. Princeton University Press: Princeton 1990.

  • 114. Richerson P. J. Boyd R. The Evolution of Human Eusociality. In. I. Eibl-Eibesfeldt F. K. Salter (eds.). Ethnic Conflict and Indoctrination: Altruism and Indoctrination in Evolutionary Perspective. Berghahn Books: New York 1998 pp. 71-95.

  • 115. Richerson P. J. Boyd R. Culture is Part of Human Biology: Why the Superorganic Concept Serves the Human Sciences Badly. In. M. Goodman A. S. Moffat (eds.). Probing Human Origins (American Academy of Arts and Science: Cambridge MA 2002. https://www.amacad.org/publications/monographs/biocomplexity.pdf pp. 59-86.

  • 116. Robbins M. M. Male-Male Interactions in Heterosexual and All-Male Wild Mountain Gorilla Groups. Ethology 102(7) 2010 pp. 942-965.

  • 117. Ronquillo J. et al. The Effects of Skin Tone on Race-Related Amygdala Activity: An fMRI Investigation. Social Cognitive and Affective Neuroscience 2007. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 118. Ross C. T. Hooper P. L. Borgerhoff Mulder M. Data on the Frequency of Non-Reproductive Adults in a Cross-Cultural Sample of Small-Scale Human Societies. bioRxiv 2015. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 119. Ryan C. Jetha C. Sex at Dawn: How We Mate Why We Stray and What It Means for Modern Relationships. Harper: New York 2011.

  • 120. Sanderson S. K. The Evolution of Religious Behavior in its Socioecological Contexts. In J. R. Feierman (ed.). The Biology of Religious Behavior: The Evolutionary Origins of Faith and Religion. Praeger/ABC-CLIO: Santa Barbara CA 2009 pp. 3-19.

  • 121. Schmitt D. P. Fuller R. C. On the Varieties of Sexual Experience: A Cross-Cultural Exploration of the Link between Religiosity and Human Mating Strategies. Psychology of Religion and Spirituality 2015. http://dx.doi.org/10/1037/re10000036.

  • 122. Schreiber D. Iacoboni M. Huxtables on the Brain: An fMRI Study of Race and Norm Violation. Political Psychology 2012. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 123. Schwartz R. M. The Curse of Cain: The Violent Legacy of Monotheism. The University of Chicago Press: Chicago 1997.

  • 124. Seewald P. Benedict XVI P. Light of the World: The Pope The Church and the Signs of the Times. Ignatius Press: San Francisco CA 2010.

  • 125. Selin G. Priestly Celibacy: Theological Foundations. The Catholic University of American Press: Washington D. C. 2016.

  • 126. Sherman P. W. Jarvis J. U. M. Alexander R. D. (eds.). The Biology of the Naked Mole Rat. Princeton University Press: Princeton NJ 1991.

  • 127. Shkurko A. V. Is Social Categorization Based on Relational Ingroup/Outgroup Opposition? A Meta-Analysis. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci 8(8) 2012 pp. 870-877.

  • 128. Smuts B. B. et al. (eds.). Primate Societies. University of Chicago Press: Chicago 1986.

  • 129. Taub D. M. The Functions of Primate Paternalism: A Cross-Species Review. In. J. R. Feierman (ed.). Pedophilia: Biosocial Dimensions. New York: Springer 1990 pp. 338-377.

  • 130. Taylor C. A Secular Age. The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press: Cambridge MA 2007.

  • 131. ter Borg M. B. van Henten J. W. Religion as a Social and Spiritual Force. Fordham University Press: New York 2010.

  • 132. Tinbergen N. The Study of Instinct. Oxford University Press: Oxford 1951.

  • 133. Toi M. Batson C. D. More Evidence that Empathy is a Source of Altruistic Motivation. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 43(2) 1982 pp. 281-292.

  • 134. Trivers R. L. The Evolution of Reciprocal Altruism. The Quarterly Review of Biology 46(1) 1971 pp. 35-57.

  • 135. Uller T. Helantera H. Towards an Evolutionary Developmental Biology of Cooperation? Studies in History and Philosophy of Biological and Biomedical Sciences 48 2014 pp. 267-271.

  • 136. Van Cappellen et al.. Effects of Oxytocin Administration on Spirituality and Emotional Response to Meditation. Soc Cogn Affect Neurosci 11(10) 2016 pp. 1579-1587.

  • 137. Van Lange P. A. M. Does Empathy Trigger Only Altruistic Motivation? How About Selflessness or Justice? Emotion 8(6) 2008 pp. 766-774.

  • 138. Voland E. Schiefenhövel W. (eds.). The Biological Evolution of Religious Mind and Behavior. Springer: Berlin 2009.

  • 139. Walker R. S. et al. Evolutionary History of Hunter-Gather Marriages Practices. PLOS ONE 6(4) 2011. e19066. doi:

    • Crossref
    • Export Citation
  • 140. Wallen K. Baum M. J. Masculinization and Defeminization in Altrical and Precocial Mammals: Comparative Aspects of Steroid Hormone Action. Hormone Brain and Behavior 4 2002 pp. 385-423.

  • 141. Whitehouse H. Modes of Religiosity: A Cognitive Theory of Religious Transmission. AltaMira Press: Lanham MD 2004.

  • 142. Wightman G. J. The Origins of Religion in the Paeleolithic. Rowman & Littlefield: Lanham MD 2015.

  • 143. Wilder J. A. Mobasher Z. Hammer M. F. Genetic Evidence for Unequal Population Size of Human Males and Females. Molecular Biology and Evolution 21(11) 2004 pp. 2047-2057.

  • 144. Wilson D. S. Does Altruism Exist? Culture Genes and the Welfare of Others. Yale University Press: Newhaven 2016.

  • 145. Wilson E. O. The Insect Societies. The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press: Cambridge 1971.

  • 146. Wilson E. O. The Social Conquest of the Earth. Liveright Publishing Corporation/W. W. Norton & Company: New York 2012.

  • 147. Wilson J. Musick M. Who Cares? Towards an Integrated Theory of Volunteer Work. American Sociological Review 62 1997 pp. 694-713.

  • 148. Wright R. The Evolution of God. Little Brown and Company: New York 2009.

  • 149. Yamagishi T. Mifune N. Parochial Altruism: Does it Explain Modern Human Group Psychology. Current Opinions in Psychology 7 2016 pp. 39-43.

  • 150. Young A. J. The Causes of Physiological Suppression in Vertebrate Societies: A Synthesis. In R. Hager C. B. Jones (eds.). op. cit. 2009 pp. 397-446.

Search
Journal information
Cited By
Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 312 192 9
PDF Downloads 141 82 2