The aim of this study was to investigate variation in mating system among three Brazilian Amazon populations of the tree Bertholletia excelsa with different levels of anthropogenic interventions. We collected open-pollinated seeds from one natural population, remnant trees dispersed in a pasture, and trees from a plantation. Outcrossing rate not varied among the populations and indicates that all seeds were originated from outcrossing (tm=1.0). Mating among relatives was significant higher in the plantation than forest and pasture populations, probably due the fact that many trees are related in the plantation. Correlated mating was significantly higher in pasture (rp=0.47) and plantation (rp=0.51) than in the natural population (rp=0.22), suggesting that trees in natural population are pollinated by a higher number of pollen donors. The paternity correlation was significantly higher within (rp(w)=0.41) than among fruits (rp(a)=0.18), showing a higher probability to find full-sibs within than among fruits. The fixation index was generally lower in seed trees than in their seedlings, suggesting selection for heterozygous individuals from seedling to adult stages. Progeny arrays collected from the natural population had a lower proportion of pairwise full-sibs than in pasture and plantation and higher variance effective size (2.75) than trees in pasture (2.15) and plantations (2.22). Results highlight that seed collections for conservation, breeding and reforestation programs preferentially should be carried out in natural populations due low proportion highest variance effective size within progeny.
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
AGUILAR R. M. QUESADA L. ASHWORTH Y. HERRERIAS- DIEGO and L. Lobo (2008): Genetic consequences of habitat fragmentation in plant populations: susceptible signals in plant traits and methodological approaches. Molecular Ecology 17: 5177-5188.
ARRUDA C. C. B. M. B. SIKVA A. M. SEBBENN M. KANASHIRO M. R. LEMES and R. GRIBEL (2015): Mating system and genetic diversity of progenies before and after logging: a case study of Bagassa guianensis (Moraceae) a low-density dioecious tree of the Amazonian forest. Tree Genetics & Genomes 11: 1-9.
BITTENCOURT J. M. and A. M. SEBBENN (2007): Patterns of pollen and seed dispersal in a small fragmented population of a wind pollinated Araucaria angustifolia in southern Brazil. Heredity 99: 580-591.
BREED M. F. M. H. K. MARKLUND K. M. OTTEWELL M. G. GARDNER J. B. C. HARRIS and A. J. LOWE (2012): Pollen diversity matters: revealing the neglected effect of pollen diversity on fitness in fragmented landscapes. Molecular Ecology 21: 5955-5968.
BURCLEY D. P. D. M. O’MALLEY V. APSIT G. T. PRANCE and K. S. BAWA (1988): Genetics of Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa Humb. & Bonpl.: Lecythidaceae). 1. Genetic variation in natural populations. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 76: 923-928.
CAVALCANTE M. C. E. E. OLIVEIRA M. M. MAUES and B. M. FREITAS (2012): Pollination requirements and the foraging behavior of potential pollinators of cultivated Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa Bonpl.) trees in Central Amazon Rainforest. Psyche 2012: 1-9.
COCKERHAM C. C. (1969): Variance of gene frequencies. Evolution 23: 72-84.
DEGEN B. and A. M. SEBBENN (2014): Genetics and tropical forests. In: PANCEL L. and M. KÖLH editors. Tropical Forestry Handbook 2nd ed. Berlin Heidelberg: Springer Verlag; p. 1-30.
DICK C. W. G. ETCHELECU and F. ASTERLITZ (2003): Pollen dispersal of Neotropical trees (Dinizia excelsa: Fabaceae) by native insects and Africa honeybees in pristine and fragmented Amazonian rainforest. Molecular Ecology 12: 753-764.
DON R. H. P. T. COX B. J. WAINWRIGHT K. BAKER and J. S. MATTICK (1991): ‘Touchdown’ PCR to circumvent spurious priming during gene amplification.Nucleic Acids Research 4008. DOYLE J. J. and J. L. DOYLE (1990): Isolation of plant DNA from fresh tissue. Focus 12: 13-15.
FERES J. M. A. M. SEBBENN M. C. GUIDUGLI M. A. MESTRINER M. L. T. MORAES and A. L. ALZATEMARIN (2012): Mating system parameters at hierarchical levels of fruits individuals and populations in the Brazilian insect-pollinated tropical tree Tabebuia roseo-alba (Bignoniaceae). Conservation Genetics 13: 393-405.
FINER M. S. and M. T. MORGAN (2003): Effects of natural rates of geitonogamy on fruit set in Asclepias speciosa (Apocynaceae): evidence favouring the plant’s dilemma. American Journal of Botany 90: 1746-1750.
FUCHS E. J. J. A. LOBO and M. QUESADA (2003): Effects of forest fragmentation and flowering phonology on the reproductive success and mating patterns of the tropical dry forest tree Pachira quinata. Conservation Biology 17: 149-157.
GOOD-AVILA S. W. D. MAJUMDER H. AMOS and A. G. STEPHENSON (2008): Characterization of self-incompatibility in Campanula rapunculoides (Campanulaceae) through genetic analyses and microscopy. Botany 86: 1-13.
GOODWILLIE C. S. KALISZ and C. G. ECKERT (2005): The evolutionary enigma of mixed mating systems in plants: Occurrence Theoretical explanations and empirical evidence. Annual Review of Ecology Evolution and Systematics 36: 47-79.
GOUDET J. (1995): Fstat. (Version 220.127.116.11.): a computer program to calculate F-statistics. Journal of Heredity 86: 485-486.
GUARIGUATA M. R. J. C. LICONA B. MOSTACEDO and P. CRONKLETON (2009): Damage to Brazil nut trees (Bertholletia excelsa) during selective timber harvesting in Northern Bolivia. Forest Ecology and Management 258: 788-793.
HARDNER C. M. and B. M. POTTS (1997): Postdispersal selection following mixed mating in Eucalyptus regnans. Evolution 51: 103-111.
HUFFORD K. M. and J. L. HAMRICK (2003): Viability selection at three early life stages of the tropical tree Platypodium elegans (Fabaceae Papilionoideae); Evolution 57: 518-526.
KALISZ S. D. W. VOGLER and K. M. HANLEY (2004): Context-dependent autonomous self-fertilization yields reproductive assurance and mixed mating. Nature 430: 884-887.
KÄRKKÄINEN K. and O. SAVOLAINEN (1993): The degree of early inbreeding depression determines the selfing rate at the seed stage: Model and results from Pinus sylvestris (Scots pine). Heredity 71: 160-166.
KÄRKKÄINEN K. V. KOSKI and O. SAVOLAINEN (1996): Geographical variation in the inbreeding depression of scots pine. Evolution 50: 111-119.
KOELEWIJN H. P. K. KÄRKKÄINEN V. KOSKI and O. SAVOLAINEN (1999): Magnitude and timing of inbreeding depression in Scots Pine (Pinus sylvestris L.). Evolution 53: 758-768.
LACERDA E. B. L. A. M. SEBBENN and M. KANASHIRO (2008): Long-pollen movement and deviation of random mating in a low-density continuous population of Hymenaea courbaril in the Brazilian Amazon. Biotropica 40: 462-470.
LANDER T. A. D. H. BOSHIER and S. A. HARRIS (2010): Fragmented but not isolated: Contribution of single trees small patches and long distance pollen flow to genetic connectivity for Gomortega keule and endangered tree. Biological Conservation 143: 2383-2590.
LOWE A. J. D. BOSHIER M. WARD C. F. E. BACLES and C. NAVARRO (2005): Genetic resource impacts of habitat loss and degradation; reconciling empirical evidence and predicted theory for Neotropical trees. Heredity 95: 255-273.
MANOEL R. O. P. ALVES C. DOURADO A. P. S. C. GAINO M. L. M. FREITAS M. L. T. MORAES and A. M. SEBBENN (2012): Contemporary pollen flow mating patterns and effective population size inferred from paternity analysis in a small fragmented population of the Neotropical tree Copaifera langsdorffii Desf. (Leguminosae-Caesalpinioideae). Conservation Genetics 13: 613-623.
MANOEL R. O. M. L. M. FREITAS E. FURLANI JUNIOR P. F. ALVES M. L. T. MORAES and A. M. SEBBENN (2015): Individual fruit and annual variation in correlated mating in a Genipa americana population. Silvae Genetica 64: 108-116.
MAUÉS M. M. (2002): Reproductive phenology and pollination of the Brazil nut tree (Bertholletia excelsa Humb. & Bonpl. Lecythidaceae) in Eastern Amazonia. In: KEVAN P. and V. L. I. FONSECA. Pollinating bees - the conservation link between agriculture and nature. Brasilia: Ministry of the Environment pp 245-254.
MILLAR M. A. M. BYRNE D. J. COATES M. J. C. STUKELY and J. A. MCCOM (2000): Mating system studies in jarrah Eucalyptus marginata (Myrtaceae). Australian Journal of Botany 48: 475-479.
MORAES M. L. T. and A. M. SEBBENN (2011): Pollen dispersal between isolated trees in the Brazilian savannah: A case study of the Neotropical tree Hymenaea stigonocarpa. Biotropica 43: 192-199.
NEI M. (1977): F-statistics and analysis of gene diversity in subdivided populations. Annals Human Genetics 41: 225-233.
O’MALLEY D. M. D. P. BUCKLEY G. T. PRANCE and K. S. BAWA (1988): Genetics of Brazil nut (Bertholletia excelsa Humb. & Bonpl.: Lecythidaceae). Theoretical and Applied Genetics 76: 929-932.
PERES C. A. and C. BAIDER (1997): Seed dispersal spatial distribution and population structure of Brazil nut trees (Bertholletia excelsa) in Southeastern Amazonia. Journal of Tropical Ecology 13: 595-616.
PRANCE G. T. and A. S. MORI (1979): Lecythidaceae - Part I: The actinomorphic flowered New World Lecythidaceae. Flora Neotropica 21: 1-270.
PRASANTH V. P. S. CHANDRA D. A. HOISINGTON and B. JAYASHREE (2006): AlleloBin-a program for allele binning of microsatellite markers based on the algorithm of Idury and Cardon 1997. Delhi (India): ICRISAT. International Crops Research Institute for the Semi-Arid Tropics.
REIS A. A. BRAGA M. LEMES R. GRIBEL and R. COLLEVATTI (2009): Development and characterization of microsatellite markers for the Brazil nut tree Bertholletia excelsa Humb. & Bonpl.(Lecythidaceae). Molecular Ecology Resources 9: 920-923.
RITLAND K. (1989): Correlated matings in the partial selfer Mimulus guttatus. Evolution 43: 848-859.
RITLAND K. (2002): Extensions of models for the estimation of mating systems using n independent loci. Heredity 88: 221-228.
SAMPSON J. F. (1998): Multiple paternity in Eucalyptus rameliana (Myrtaceae). Heredity 81: 349-355.
SANTOS C. F. and M. L. AISY (2012): Interactions between carpenter bees and orchid bees (Hymenoptera: Apidae) in flowers of Bertholletia excelsa Bonpl. (Lecythidaceae). Acta Amazonica 42: 84-94.
SEBBENN A. M. (2006): Sistema de reprodução em espécies arbóreas tropicais e suas implicações para a seleção de árvores matrizes para reflorestamentos ambientais. In: HIGA A. R. and L. D. SILVA. Pomares de sementes de espécies florestais nativas. Curitiba: FUPEF p. 93-138.
SILVA C. R. S. P. S. B. ALBUQUERQUE F. R. ERVEDOSA J. W. S. MOTA A. FIGUEIRA and A. M. SEBBENN (2011): Understanding the genetic diversity spatial genetic structure and mating system at the hierarchical levels of fruits and individuals of a continuous Theobroma cacao population from the Brazilian Amazon. Heredity 106: 973-985.
SUJII P. S. P. W. INGLIS A.Y. CIAMPI V. N. SOLFERINI and V. C. R. AZEVEDO (2013): Isolation and characterization of microsatellite markers for Bertholletia excelsa (Lecythidaceae) population genetic analysis. Genet. Mol. Res. 12: 5278-5282.
SUJII P. S. K. MARTINS L. H. O. WADT V. C. R. AZEVEDO and V. N. SOLFERINI (2015): Genetic structure of Bertholletia excelsa populations from the Amazon at different spatial scales. Conserv. Genet. DOI 10.1007/s10592-015-0714-4.
SURLES S. E. J. ARNOLD A. SCHABEL J. L. HAMRICK and B. C. BONGARTEN (1990): Genetic relatedness in open pollinated families of two leguminous tree species Robinia pseudoacacia L. and Gleditsia triacanthos L. Theor. Appl. Genet. 80: 49-56.
TAMBARUSSI E. V. D. BOSHIER R. VENCOVSKY M. L. M. FREITAS and A. M. SEBBENN (2015): Paternity analysis reveals significant isolation and near neighbour pollen dispersal in small Cariniana legalis Mart. Kuntze populations in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Ecology and Evolution. doi:
TAMBARUSSI, E. V., D. BOSHIER, R. VENCOVSKY, M. L. M. FREITAS and A. M. SEBBENN (2015): Paternity analysis reveals significant isolation and near neighbour pollen dispersal in small Cariniana legalis Mart. Kuntze populations in the Brazilian Atlantic Forest. Ecology and Evolution. doi: 10.1002/ece3.1816)| false
WADT L. H. O. K. A. KAINER and D. A. P. GOMESSILVA (2005): Population structure and nut yield of a Bertholletia excelsa stand in Southwestern Amazonia. Forest Ecology and Management 211: 371-384.
WADT L. H. O. K. A. KAINER C. STAUDHAMMER and R. SERRENO (2008): Sustainable forest use in Brazilian extractive reserves: Natural regeneration of Brazil nut in exploited populations. Biological Conservation 141: 332-346.
WARD M. C. W. DICK R. GRIBEL and A. J. LOWE (2005): To self or not to self... A review of outcrossing and pollen-mediated gene flow in Neotropical trees. Heredity 95: 246-254.