A naturally occurring putative hybrid between Eucalyptus largiflorens F. Muell and Eucalyptus gracilis F. Muell called Green Box tolerates saline conditions of the River Murray floodplains better than E. largiflorens. Revegetation strategies utilizing seedlings of Green Box have had limited success because only a few are Green Box and the majority are throw backs to E. gracilis and E. largiflorens. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to identify traits characteristic of Green Box and AFLP markers associated with the traits enabling selection at the seedling stage. This was done by non-linear canonical correlation analysis (OVERALS) to test for statistically significant associations between morphological and physiological traits with 232 AFLP markers from 9 primer combinations. OVERALS with all markers produced 1st and 2nd dimensions accounting for 80 and 74% of variation respectively. Green Box plants were placed intermediate between E. gracillis and E. largiflorens according to leaf colour, gloss and nitrogen with component loadings (lc) of 0.340, 0.615 and 0.294 respectively. A second approach of simple linear regression of morphological and physiological traits against all 232 AFLP markers singled out 17 with significance P<0.05. Thirteen of these were also identified by OVERALS. Four occurred with high frequency in Green Box and E. largiflorens distinguishing them from E. gracilis. In order to separate Green Box and E. largiflorens, the segregation of a further three markers can be used to align Green Box with E. gracilis. Therefore, the segregation of 7 markers can be utilized to select Green Box.
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
BLAKE T. J. (1981): Salt Tolerance of Eucalypt Species Grown in Saline Solution Culture. Australian Forest Research 11: 179-183.
BROOKER M. I. H. (2000): A new classification of the genus Eucalyptus L’Her. (Myrtaceae). Australian Systematic Botany 13: 79-148.
BYRNE M. M. I. MARQUEZGARCIA T. UREN D. S. SMITH and G. F. MORAN (1996): Conservation and genetic diversity of microsatellite loci in the genus Eucalyptus. Australian Journal of Botany 44: 331-341.
BYRNE M. G. F. MORAN and W. N. TIBBITS (1993): Restriction Map and Maternal Inheritance of Chloroplast DNA in Eucalyptus-Nitens. Journal of Heredity 84: 218-220.
CHEN D. M. F. J. KEIPER and L. F. De FILIPPIS (1998): Physiological changes accompanying the induction of salt tolerance in Eucalyptus microcorys shoots in tissue culture. Journal of Plant Physiology 152: 555-563.
CONNOLLY B. (1997): Traditional Fishery Knowledge and Practice for Sustainable Marine Resource Management in Northwestern Europe: A Comparative Study in Ireland and the Netherlands Final Report. pp. Leiden Ethnosystems and Development Programme (LEAD) Insitute of Cultural and Social Studies Leiden Universiteif The Netherlands. In collaboration with Department of Zoology University College Galway Ireland.
DAWSON T. E. and P. D. BROOKS (2001): Fundamentals of stable isotope chemistry and measurement. pp. 1-18 in Stable Isotope Techniques in the Study of Biological Processes and Functioning of Ecosystems. Kluwer Academic Publishers Dordrecht The Netherlands.
DOYLE J. J. (1991): DNA protocols for plants. pp. 283-293 in Molecular Techniques in Taxonomy edited by G. M. HEWITT. Springer-Verlag Berlin.
DOYLE J. J. and J. L. Doyle (1990): Isolation of plant DNA from fresh tissue. Focus 12: 13-15.
EAMUS D. B. MYERS G. DUFF and R. WILLIAMS (1999): A cost-benefit analysis of leaves of eight Australian savanna tree species of differing leaf life-span. Photosynthetica 36: 575-586.
FARQUHAR G. D. J. R. EHLERINGER and K. T. HUBICK (1989): Carbon Isotope Discrimination and Photosynthesis. Annual Review of Plant Physiology and Plant Molecular Biology 40: 503-537.
GAIOTTO F. A. M. BRAMUCCI and D. GRATTAPAGLIA (1997): Estimation of outcrossing rate in a breeding population of Eucalyptus urophylla with dominant RAPD and AFLP markers. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 95: 842-849.
GARSON D. G. (2002): http://www2.chass.ncsu.edu/garson/pa765/canonic.htm pp. edited by C. o. H. a. S. S. Professor of Public Administration Box 8102 206 1911 Building North Carolina State University Raleigh North Carolina 27695.
GOODMAN S. J. N. H. BARTON G. SWANSON K. ABERNETHY and J. M. PEMBERTON (1999): Introgression through rare hybridization: A genetic study of a hybrid zone between red and sika deer (genus Cervus) in Argyll Scotland. Genetics 152: 355-371.
HANCOCK T. (2002) :Relating response variables to AFLP Banding Data. pp. Biometrics SA The University of Adelaide Adelaide Australia.
HANDLEY L. L. D. ROBINSON B. P. FORSTER R. P. ELLIS and C. M. SCRIMGEOUR et al. (1997): Shoot delta N-15 correlates with genotype and salt stress in barley. Planta 201: 100-102.
HÖGBERG P. (1997): Tansley review No 95 - N-15 natural abundance in soil-plant systems. New Phytologist 137: 179-203.
JARWAL S. D. G. R. WALKER and I. D. JOLLY (1996): General Site Description. pp. 5-20 in Salt and water movement in the Chowilla floodplain. edited by G. R. WALKER I. D. JOLLY and S. D. JARWAL. CSIRO Division of Water Resources Canberra.
JESSOP J. P. H. R. TOELKEN and J. M. BLACK (1986): Flora of South Australia. South Australian Government Printing Division Adelaide.
KINGSFORD R. T. (2000): Ecological impacts of dams water diversions and river management on floodplain wetlands in Australia. Austral Ecology 25: 109-127.
KOERBER G. R. J.V. SEEKAMP P. A. ANDERSON M. A. WHALEN and S. D. TYERMAN (2012): A putative hybrid of Eucalyptus largiflorens growing on salt- and droughtaffected floodplains has reduced specific leaf area and leaf nitrogen. Australian Journal of Botany 60(4): 358-367.
LAMBERS H. F. STUART CHAPIN III and T. L. PONS (2008): Plant Physiological Ecology. Springer New York.
LLOYD J. J. P. SYVERTSEN P. E. KRIEDEMANN and G. D. FARQUHAR (1992): Low Conductances for CO2 DIFFUSION from Stomata to the Sites of Carboxylation in Leaves of Woody Species. Plant Cell and Environment 15: 873-899.
MARGULES AND PARTNERS P. and J. SMITH and F. A. L. VICTORIAN DEPARTMENT OF CONSERVATION (1990): River Murray riparian vegetation study. pp. 187. prepared for the Murray-Darling Basin Commission Canberra Australia.
MARQUES C. M. J. A. ARAUJO J. G. FERREIRA R. WHETTEN and D. M. O’MALLEY et al. (1998): AFLP genetic maps of Eucalyptus globulus and E. tereticornis. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 96: 727-737.
MCKINNON G. E. R. E. VAILLANCOURT D. A. STEANE and B. M. POTTS (2008): An AFLP marker approach to lowerlevel systematics in Eucalyptus (Myrtaceae). American Journal of Botany 95: 368-380.
MORABITO D. D. MILLS D. PRAT and P. DIZENGREMEL (1994): Response of Clones of Eucalyptus-Microtheca to NaCl in-vitro. Tree Physiology 14: 201-210.
MYERS B. A. (1995): The Influence of the Lignotuber on Hydraulic Conductance and Leaf Cinductance in Eucalyptus- Behriana Seedlings. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 22: 857-863.
NEC (1988): Chowilla Salinity Mitigation Scheme - Draft Environmental Impact Statement. pp. Report prepared by Natural Environment Consultancy for the Engineering and Water Supply Department of South Australia.
NIINEMETS U. (1999): Components of leaf dry mass per area - thickness and density - alter leaf photosynthetic capacity in reverse directions in woody plants. New Phytologist 144: 35-47.
O’MALLEY C. and F. SHELDON (1990): Chowilla Floodplain Biological Study. pp. Nature Conservation Society of South Australia Adelaide South Australia.
OVERTON I. and T. DOODY (2010): Ecosystem response modelling in the Chowilla Floodplain Lindsay and Wallpolla Islands icon site. pp. 357-372 in Ecosystem Response Modelling in the Murray Darling Basin edited by N. a. O. SAINTILAN I. CSIRO Publishing Collingwood Victoria.
PAKNIYAT H. W. POWELL E. BAIRD L. L. HANDLEY and D. ROBINSON et al. (1997): AFLP variation in wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum C. Koch) with reference to salt tolerance and associated ecogeography. Genome 40: 332-341.
PARKER G. D. (1998): Identification of molecular markers linked to quantitative traits and disease resistance genes in wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) pp. The University of Adelaide Adelaide South Australia.
PARSONS R. F. and T. M. ZUBRINICH (2010): The greenleaved variant of Eucalyptus largiflorens: a story involving hybridization and observant local people. Cunninghamia 11: 413-416.
POORTER H. and J. R. EVANS (1998) Photosynthetic nitrogen- use efficiency of species that differ inherently in specific leaf area. Oecologia 116: 26-37.
POORTER H. and E. GARNIER (1999): Ecological significance of inherent variation in relative growth rate. pp. 81-120 in Handbook of Functional Plant Ecology edited by F. I. PUGNAIRE F. VALLADARES and M. DEKKER New York.
POWELL W. W. T. B. THOMAS E. BAIRD P. LAWRENCE and A. Booth et al. (1997): Analysis of quantitative traits in barley by the use of amplified fragment length polymorphisms. Heredity 79: 48-59.
QUARRIE S. A. D. A. LAURIE J. H. ZHU C. LEBRETON and A. SEMIKHODSKII et al. (1997); QTL analysis to study the association between leaf size and abscisic acid accumulation in droughted rice leaves and comparisons across cereals. Plant Molecular Biology 35: 155-165.
REICH P. B. M. B. WALTERS M. G. TJOELKER D. VANDERKLEIN and C. BUSCHENA (1998): Photosynthesis and respiration rates depend on leaf and root morphology and nitrogen concentration in nine boreal tree species differing in relative growth rate. Functional Ecology 12: 395-405.
ROBINSON D. L. L. HANDLEY C. M. SCRIMGEOUR D. C. GORDON and B. P. FORSTER et al. (2000): Using stable isotope natural abundances (delta N-15 and delta C-13) to integrate the stress responses of wild barley (Hordeum spontaneum C. Koch.) genotypes. Journal of Experimental Botany 51: 41-50.
SCHIEVING F. and H. POORTER (1999): Carbon gain in a multispecies canopy: the role of specific leaf area and photosynthetic nitrogen-use efficiency in the tragedy of the commons. New Phytologist 143: 201-211.
SHARLEY T. and C. HUGGAN (1995): Chowilla Resource Management Plan. pp. Murray-Darling Basin Commission’s Chowilla Working Group Canberra Australia.
SKABO S. R. E. VAILLANCOURT and B. M. POTTS (1998): Fine-scale genetic structure of Eucalyptus globulus ssp. globulus forest revealed by RAPDs. Australian Journal of Botany 46: 583-594.
STEVENS J. (1986): Applied multivariate statistics for the social sciences. Hillsdale NJ: Erlbaum.
TRIEST L. B. DE GREEF R. DE BONDT and J. VAN SLYCKEN (2000): RAPD of controlled crosses and clones from the field suggests that hybrids are rare in the Salix alba-Salix fragilis complex. Heredity 84: 555-563.
VOS P. R. HOGERS M. BLEEKER M. Reijans and T. VANDELEE et al. (1995): AFLP - a New Technique for DNAFingerprinting. Nucleic Acids Research 23: 4407-4414.
WANG Y. G. L. REIGHARD D. R. LAYNE A. G. ABBOTT and H. HUANG (2005): Inheritance of AFLP Markers and Their Use for Genetic Diversity Analysis in Wild and Domesticated Pawpaw [Asimina triloba (L.) Dunal]. Journal of the American Society of Horticultural Science 130: 561-568.
WRIGHT I. J. P. K. GROOM B. B. LAMONT P. POOT and L. D. PRIOR et al. (2004): Leaf trait relationships in Australian plant species. Functional plant biology 31: 551-558.
YOUNG W. P. J. M. SCHUPP and P. KEIM (1999): DNA methylation and AFLP marker distribution in the soybean genome. Theoretical and Applied Genetics 99: 785-792.
ZUBRINICH T. M. (1996): An investigation of the ecophysiological morphological and genetic characteristics of Eucalyptus largiflorens F. Muell and Eucalyptus gracilis F. Muell; in relation to soil salinity and ground - water conditions throughout the Chowilla Anabranch pp. xi leaves.
ZUBRINICH T. M. B. LOVEYS S. GALLASCH J. V. SEEKAMP and S. D. TYERMAN (2000): Tolerance of salinized floodplain conditions in a naturally occurring Eucalyptus hybrid related to lowered plant water potential. Tree Physiology 20: 953-963.