Clonal Variation and Genotype by Environment Interactions in Growth and Wood Density in Eucalyptus camaldulensis at Three Contrasting Sites in Vietnam

Open access


A total of 172 clones of Eucalyptus camaldulensis were tested in three clonal tests in northern, north-central and southern Vietnam, with 32 of them planted across all three sites. At age 3-5 years, the clonal repeatabilities were 0.18-0.42 for growth traits, 0.71-0.78 for wood basic density and 0.56-0.66 for pilodyn penetration. Genotypic correlations between growth and density at the three sites were from -0.24 to 0.17, and did not differ significantly from zero. Genotypic correlations between sites were 0.32-0.56 for growth traits at age 3 years, and 0.72-0.88 for density and pilodyn penetration. Selection gains for breast height diameter at individual sites at a selection proportion of 5% were 22-32%, with minor effects on density. Selection for diameter at one site gave indirect responses in diameter at the other two sites that were only 40-60% of the gains obtainable from direct selection at those sites. This study shows that fast-growing E. camaldulensis clones can be selected in Vietnam with only minor effects on density. Selection for growth should be regionally based to maximize selection gain whereas clonal rankings for density will change little across regions.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • BECKER W. A. (1992): Manual of quantitative genetics: Academic Enterprises Washington.

  • BOOTH T. H. M. DUDZINSKI T. JOVANOVIC K. M. OLD K. PONGPANICH and P. Q. THU (2000): Identifying high risk areas for Cylindrocladium quinqueseptatum and Cryptosporiopsis eucalypti on eucalypts. In: Eucalypt diseases and their management. Kasertsat University Bangkok.

  • BROOKER M. I. H. and D. KLEINIG (2004): Field guide to Eucalypts Volume 3 - Northern Australia. CSIRO Publishing Melbourne.

  • BURDON R. D. (1977): Genetic correlation as a concept for studying genotype by environment interaction in forest tree breeding. Silvae Genetica 26: 168-175.

  • BUREAU OF METEOROLOGY (2009): Australia Climate Data Online. Available from (accessed 19th June 2008).

  • BUTCHER P. M. MCDONALD and J. BELL (2009): Congruence between environmental parameters morphology and genetic structure in Australia’s most widely distributed eucalypt Eucalyptus camaldulensis. Tree Genetics and Genomes 5 189-210.

  • CHIEU T. T. and D. D. THUAN (1996): Vietnam soil (in Vietnamese).Agriculture Publishing House Hanoi.

  • CHUONG H. (1992): Results of species/provenance trials of eucalypts in Vietnam (in Vietnamese). Forest Science Institute of Vietnam Hanoi.

  • COSSALTER C. and C. PYE-SMITH (2003): Fast-Wood Forestry - Myths and Realities. Center for International Forestry Research Jakarta.

  • DAC P. T. and P. N. TOAN (1993): Vietnam Climate (in Vietnamese). Science and Technique Publishing House Hanoi.

  • DEAN G. H. (1995): Objectives for wood fibre quality and uniformity. In: POTTS B. M. BORRALHO N. M. G. REID J. B. CROMER R. N. TIBBITS W. N. RAYMOND C. A. (Eds.). Eucalypt plantations: improving fibre yield and quality. CRC for Temperate Hardwood Forestry Hobart.

  • ELDRIDGE K. G. C. HARWOOD G. VAN WYK and J. DAVIDSON (1993): Eucalypt Domestication and Breeding. Oxford University Press. New York.

  • EMERY B. M. and F. T. LEDIG (1987): Provenance variation in Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. in California. Silvae Genetica 36: 172-180.

  • FALCONER D. S. and T. F. C. MACKAY (1996): Introduction to Quantitative Genetics. Longman Group Ltd Essex.

  • GIBSON A. E. P. BACHELARD and K. T. HUBICK (1994): Growth strategies of Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. at three sites in northern Australia. Australian Journal of Plant Physiology 21: 653-662.

  • GIBSON A. E. P. BACHELARD and K. T. HUBICK (1995): Relationship between climate and provenance variation in Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. Australian Journal Plant Physiology 22: 453-460.

  • GILMOUR A. R. B. J. GOGEL B. R. CULLIS S. J. WELHAM and R. THOMPSON (2006): ASReml User Guide Release 2.0. VSN International Ltd Hemel Hempstead.

  • GWAZE D. P. F. E. BRIDGWATER and W. J. LOWE (2000): Performance of interspecific F1 eucalypt hybrids in Zimbawe. Forest Genetics 7: 295-303.

  • HANSEN C. P. (2000): Application of the Pilodyn in forest tree improvement. Danida Forest Seed Centre Humlebaek.

  • KANG M. S. J. D. MILLER and L. L. DARRAH (1987): A note on relationship between stability variance and ecovalence. Heredity 78: 107.

  • KHA L. D. (2003): Selection breeding and propagation of some main plantation tree species in Vietnam (in Vietnamese). Agricultural Publishing House Hanoi.

  • KHA L. D. H. H. Thinh and N.V. CUONG (2003): Improvement of Eucalypts for Reforestation in Vietnam. In: TURNBULL J.W. (Ed.). Eucalypts in Asia. Australian Centre for International Agricultural Research Zhanjiang.

  • LIBBY W. J. and R. M. RAUTER (1984): Advantages of clonal forestry. Forestry Chronicle 60 145-149.

  • LIMA J. T. M. C. BREESE and C. M. CAHALAN (2000): Genotype-environment interaction in wood basic density of Eucalyptus clones. Wood Science and Technology 34: 197-206.

  • MAHMOOD K. N. E. MARCAR M. H. NAQVI R. J. ARNOLD D. F. CRAWFORD S. IQBAL and K. M. AKEN (2003): Genetic variation in Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. for growth and stem straightness in a provenance-family trial on saltland in Pakistan. Forest Ecology and Management 176: 405-416.

  • MARD (2002): Statistics of agriculture and rural development 1996-2000. Agicultural Publishing House Hanoi.

  • MCDONALD M.W. M. I. H. BROOKER and P. A. BUTCHER(2009): A taxonomic revision of Eucalyptus camaldulensis (Myrtaceae). Australian Systematic Botany 22: 257-285.

  • MIDGLEY S. J. K. G. ELDRIDGE and J. C. DORAN (1989): Genetic resources of Eucalyptus camaldulensis. Commonwealth Forestry Review 68: 295-308.

  • MULLIN T. J. and Y. S. PARK (1992): Estimating genetic gains from alternative breeding strategies for clonal forestry. Canadian Journal of Forest Research 22: 14-23.

  • MUNERI A. and C. A. RAYMOND (2000): Genetic parameters and genotype-by-environment interactions for basic density pilodyn penetration and diameter in Eucalyptus globulus. Forest Genetics 7: 317-328.

  • NAMKOONG G. (1981): Introduction to quantitative genetics in forestry. Castle House Turnbridge Wells.

  • NAMKOONG G. H. C. KANG and J. S. BROUARD (1988): Tree breeding: principles and strategies. Springer-Verlag Berlin.

  • OLD K. M. M. J. DUDZINSKI K. PONGPANICH Z. Q. YUAN P. Q. THU and N. T. NGUYEN (2002): Cryptosporiopsis leaf spot and shoot blight of eucalypts. Australasian Plant Pathology 31: 337-344.

  • OLESEN P. O. (1971): Water displacement method. A fast and accurate method to determine green volume of wood samples. Forest Tree Improvement 3: 1-23.

  • OSORIO L. F. T. L. WHITE and D. A. HUBER (2001): Age trends of heritabilities and genotype by environment interactions for growth traits and wood density from clonal trials of Eucalyptus grandis Hill ex Maiden. Silvae Genetica 50: 108-117.

  • OTEGBEYE G. O. (1985): Provenance productivity in Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. and its implications to genetic improvement in the Savanna region of Nigeria. Silvae Genetica 34: 121-126.

  • PINYOPUSARERK K. J. C. DORAN E. R. WILLIAMS and P. WASUWANICH (1996): Variation in growth of Eucalyptus camaldulensis provenances in Thailand. Forest Ecology and Management 87: 63-73.

  • PISUTTIPICHED S. E. RETULAINEN R. MALINEN H. KOLEHMAINEN M. RUHANEN and S. SIRIPATTANADILOK (2003): Effect of harvesting age on the quality of Eucalyptus camaldulensis bleached kraft pulp. Appita Journal 56: 385-390.

  • SHUKLA G. K. (1972): Some statistical aspects of partitioning genotype-environmental components of variability. Heredity 29: 237-245.

  • THU P. Q. K. M. OLD M. J. DUDZINSKI and R. J. GIBBS (2000): Results of eucalypt disease surveys in Vietnam. In: Eucalypt diseases and their management. Kasetsart University Bangkok.

  • VARGHESE M. C. HARWOOD R. HEDGE und N. RAVI (2008): Evaluation of provenances of Eucalyptus camaldulensis and clones of E. camaldulensis and E. tereticornis at contrasting sites in southern India. Silvae Genetica 57: 170-179.

  • WHITE T. L. (1987): A conceptual frame work for tree improvement programs. New Forests 1: 325-342.

  • WILLIAMS E. R. A. C. MATHESON and C. E. HARWOOD (2002): Experimental design and analysis for tree improvement. CSIRO Publishing Melbourne.

  • WRICKE G. (1962): Evaluation method for recording ecological differences in field trials (in German). Z. Pflanzenzüchtung 47: 92-96.

Journal information
Impact Factor

IMPACT FACTOR 2018: 0,741
5-year IMPACT FACTOR: 0,651

CiteScore 2018: 0.77

SCImago Journal Rank (SJR) 2018: 0.345
Source Normalized Impact per Paper (SNIP) 2018: 0.362

Cited By
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 181 115 2
PDF Downloads 126 93 2