Increased awareness of chronic kidney disease stimulates an interest towards early detection and prevention. The true prevalence of kidney injury varies from 10 to 40%, mostly depending on the methodology of the study and the population enrolled. A screening strategy targeting the highest risk groups, those with diabetes or hypertension, family history of diabetes, hypertension, or kidney disease, is likely to be most efficient and cost effective. Quantification for albuminuria should be performed using laboratorymethods or albumin to creatinine ratio and should be monitored at regular intervals. The most correct equations calculating glomerular filtration rate differ in separate populations, and the most accurate equations in patients with high cardiovascular risk are MDRD and CKD-EPI. Markers of early kidney damage have association with other target organs damage, even in subclinical or preclinical mode. Individuals at stage 4 and 5 chronic kidney disease, with higher levels of proteinuria, proteinuria together with haematuria, rapidly declining glomerular filtration rate, or poorly controlled hypertension should be referred to a nephrologist in order to identify the cause, provide recommendations, slow progression, or treat complications.
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