The paper aims to analyse the state of inter-ethnic relations in Kosovo between ethnic Albanians and ethnic Serbs, with special focus on the period after unilateral declaration of independence of Kosovo in 2008. Inter-ethnic conflict in Kosovo has exclusively been over its territory since both Serbs and Albanians have made claims about history and ethno-demography to justify their alleged exclusive right to this ethnically mixed region. Consequently, inter-ethnic relations between Albanians and Serbs in Kosovo have been rather problematic throughout the most of the 20th century. During this period Albanians in Kosovo have been subjected to discrimination, intimidation and even mass expulsion by Yugoslav/Serb authorities. In late 1990s, these relations between Albanians and Serbs in Kosovo have progressively worsened and finally escalated in an armed warfare in 1999.
Immediately after the war, Serbs in Kosovo were occasionally exposed to acts of inter-ethnic and retaliatory violence. Inter-ethnic relations between the two major ethnicities continued to be tense and fragile after independence of Kosovo in 2008. Dramatic changes of ethnic composition structure, atrocities and huge number of refugees due to the war, have left a legacy of deep mistrust and animosities between Albanians and Serbs in the newly created state. Consequently, Serbs in Kosovo have from the beginning refused to recognize Kosovo’s independence and have rigorously refused any governance by Kosovo authorities. Serbian community, especially in the North, claims stronger territorial autonomy, even separatism and unification with Serbia. The paper claims that in Kosovo inter-ethnic and interstate relations are basically the components of the same equation. Therefore, paper concludes that only overall improvement of relations between Kosovo and Serbia could contribute to overall relaxation of inter-ethnic relations between Albanians and Serbs in Kosovo. Unfortunately, the latest incidents between Kosovo and Serbia have increased the tensions between the two sides to alarming levels.
Falls das inline PDF nicht korrekt dargestellt ist, können Sie das PDF hier herunterladen.
• Beha, A. (2014). Minority Rights: An Opportunity for Adjustment of Ethnic Relations in Kosovo?. Journal on Ethnopolitics and Minority Issues in Europe, 13(4), 85-110.
• Brand, J. & Idrizi, V. (2012, February). Grass-root Approaches to Inter-Ethnic Reconciliation in the Northern Part of Kosovo. Prishtina: Kosovar Institute for Policy Research and Development.
• Calic, M. J. (2000). Kosovo in the twentieth century: A historical account. In Ramesh Thakur and Albrecht Schnabel ed., Kosovo and the Challenge of Humanitarian Intervention: Selective Indignation, Collective Action, and International Citizenship. Tokyo: United Nations University Press.
• Constitution of the Republic of Kosovo (2008, June 15). Prishtina: Assembly of the Republic of Kosovo.
• Curri, F. & Loshi, M. (2013). Monitoring Regional Cooperation in South East Europe: Country Report - Kosovo. In Stefan Dehnert and Dane Taleski (eds.) Monitoring Regional Cooperation in South East Europe, Berlin: Friedrich Ebert Stiftung.
• Demjaha, A. & Peci, L. (2015). Insurgencies in the Balkans: Albanian Liberation Armies. In Albrecht Schnabel and Rohan Gunaratna eds. Wars From Within: Understanding and Managing Insurgent Movements. London: Imperial College Press.
• Demjaha, A. (2000). The Kosovo Conflict: A Perspective from Inside. In Albrecht Schnabel and Ramesh Thakur eds. Kosovo and the Challenge of Humanitarian Intervention: Selective Indignation, Collective Action, and International Citizenship. Tokyo: United Nations University Press.
• Djukanovic, D. (2008, October 2-4). The Post‐conflict Integration of Minority Ethnic Communities in Kosovo. Third Annual Conference on Human Security, Terrorism and Organized Crime in the Western Balkan Region, Belgrade: HUMSEC.
• European Stability Initiative (2004, June 7). The Lausanne Principle: Multiethnicity, Territory and the Future of Kosovo’s Serbs. Berlin/Prishtina: European Stability Initiative.
• First Agreement of Principles Governing Normalization of Relations. (2013, April 19). The office of the Prime Minister, The Republic of Kosovo. Retrieved from http://www.kryeministriks.net/repository/docs/FIRST_AGREEMENT_OF_PRINCIPLES_GOVERNING_THE_NORMALIZATION_OF_RELATIONS,_APRIL_19,_2013_BRUSSELS_en.pdf
• International Crisis Group (2011, March 14). North Kosovo: Dual Sovereignty in Practice. ICG Europe Report No 211, Pristina/Belgrade/Brussels.
• International Crisis Group (2013, March 19). Serbia and Kosovo: The Path to Normalisation. ICG Europe Report No 223, Pristina/Belgrade/Brussels.
• International Crisis Group (2004, April 22). Collapse in Kosovo. ICG Europe Report No 155, Pristina/Belgrade/Brussels.
• Islami, H. (1994). Demographic Reality of Kosovo. In Dusan Janjic and Shkelzen Maliqi, eds., Conflict or Dialogue: Serbian-Albanian Relations and Integration of the Balkans. Subotica: Open University, European Civic Centre for Conflict Resolution.
• Judah, T. (2008). Kosovo: What Everyone Needs to Know. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
• Karadaku, L. (2012, October 16). Kosovo completes 2011 census without data from north. SETimes. Retrieved from http://www.setimes.com/cocoon/setimes/xhtml/en_GB/features/setimes/features/2012/10/16/feature-04
• Kllokoqi, S., Ahmeti, B., Konjufca, G. & Valon Murati (2008). The Role of Human and Minority Rights in the Process of Reconstruction and Reconciliation for State and Nation-Building: Kosova. Human and Minority Rights in the Life Cycle of Ethnic Conflicts, Bozen-Bolzano: European Academy.
• Kosovo Agency of Statistics (Agjencioni i Statistikave të Kosovës, ASK) (2012). Rezultatet përfundimtare të regjistrimit të popullsisë 2011[Final Results of 2011 Census]. Prishtina.
• Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe (2010). Kosovo Communities Profiles. Prishtina: OSCE Mission in Kosovo.
• Press release M-NAC-1(99) 51 (1999, April 12).
• Pugliese, M. (2016, March 8). The uncertain future of the Association of Serb majority municipalities in Kosovo. Nationalia, Retrieved from http://www.nationalia.info/new/10733/the-uncertain-future-of-the-association-of-serb-majority-municipalities-in-kosovo
• Rettman, A. (2014, June 10). Ethnic Serbs vote as normal in Kosovo elections. EU Observer, Retrieved from http://euobserver.com/foreign/124538
• Rossi, M. (2014). Ending the impasse in Kosovo: partition, decentralization, or consociationalism?. Nationalities Papers: The Journal of Nationalism and Ethnicity, 42(5), 867-889.
• Salem, H. (2017, January 24). Kosovo, Serb dispute threatens to derail Balkan peace,” Politico, Retrieved from http://www.politico.eu/article/eukosovo-serbia-train-dispute-eu-mogherini-vucic-thaci/
• Serbia Accused of Provoking Kosovo over Train. (2017, January 16). Balkan Insight, Retrieved from http://www.balkaninsight.com/en/article/serbia-accused-of-provoking-kosovo-over-train-01-16-2017
• Serbia and Kosovo: A Breakthrough at Last (2013, April). The Economist, Retrieved from http://www.economist.com/blogs/easternapproaches/2013/04/serbia-and-kosovo-0
• Tansey, O. (2009). Kosovo: Independence and Tutelage. Journal of Democracy, 20(2), 153-166.
• United Nations (2007, March 26). Report of the Special Envoy of the Secretary- General on Kosovo’s Future Status. S/2007/168.
• United Nations (2010, September 9). Doc. A/RES/64/298, New York: United Nations.
• United Nations Security Council (2005, October 24). Statement by the President of the Security Council. UN Doc S/PRST/2005/51.
• Weller, M. (2008). Negotiating the Final Status of Kosovo, Chaillot Paper No. 114, Paris: Institute For Security Studies.
• Yannis, A. (2004). The UN as Government in Kosovo. Global Governance: A Review of Multilateralism and International Organizations, 10(1), 67-91.
• Zaba, N. & Morina, D. (2017, January 19). Kosovo’s Serbs Feel Frightened, Insecure and Misused. Balkan Insight, Retrieved from http://www.balkaninsight.com/en/article/kosovo-s-serbs-feel-frightened-insecureand-misused-01-19-2017