Studies of primary school pupils’ Gaelic to date have largely relied on criterion referenced tests to measure attainment against curricular expectations: with only NicLeòid’s (2015) work on student attitudes and Nance’s research (e.g. 2013 and 2015) on comparative phonology bucking this trend. There is a surprising lack of information or research about the language forms and bilingual repertoire of young speakers. A better understanding of young people’s language practices requires the Gaelic research community to develop datasets from spontaneous interactions. This paper draws on a pilot study with a primary 5-6 school cohort in Gaelic-medium education. Using a combination of audio and audio-visual data from the classroom together with data on young speakers’ language attitudes, this paper examines pupils’ determination and strategies to maintain the classroom language as Gaelic. The results of this pilot study can inform the development of new methodologies for collaborative research with the school community on children’s linguistic development and attainment. Such research, it is argued, is necessary in light of the dependency of the Gaelic language planning model on the primary school for the production of new Gaelic speakers.
If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.
Auer, Peter. 1984. Bilingual Conversation. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.
Baker, Colin. 1992. Language and Attitudes. Clevendon: Multilingual Matters.
Baker, Colin. 2006. Foundations of Bilingual Education and Bilingualism. Clevedon: Multilingual Matters.
Cohen, Louis, Lawrence Manion, and Keith Morrison. 2000. Research Methods in Education (5th Edition). London: Routledge Falmer.
Creswell, John W. 2012. Educational research: Planning, conducting, and evaluating quantitative and qualitative research (4th ed.). Boston, MA: Pearson
Dunmore, Stuart. 2014. Bilingual life after school?: Language use, ideologies and attitudes among Gaelic-medium educated adults. University of Edinburgh: Unpublished Doctoral Thesis
Dunmore, Stuart. 2017. “Immersion education outcomes and the Gaelic community: identities and language ideologies among Gaelic medium-educated adults in Scotland”, Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 38:8: 726-741, DOI: 10.1080/01434632.2016.1249875.
Education Scotland, 2007. Curriculum for Excellence, Literacy and Gàidhlig, Principles and Practice, Scotland.
Fishman, Joshua A. 2006. “Language Policy and Language Shift”, in: Thomas Ricento (ed.). An Introduction to Language Policy: Theory and Method. Oxford: Blackwell Publishing.
García, Ofelia. 2009. Bilingual Education in the 21st century: A global perspective. Malden MA and Oxford: Wiley/Blackwell.
Hickey, Tina. 2001.“Mixing beginners and native speakers in minority language immersion: who is immersing who?” The Canadian Modern Language Review, 57(3): 443-474.
Hinton, Leanne. 2011. “Language revitalization and language pedagogy: new teaching and learning strategies”. Language and Education 25:4: 307-318, DOI: 10.1080/09500782.2011.577220
HM Inspectorate of Education. 2011. Gaelic Education: Building on the Successes, Addressing the Barriers. Livingstone: HM Inspectorate of Education.
Johnstone, Richard, Wynne Harlen, Morag MacNeil, Bob Stradling and Graham Thorpe. 1999. The attainment of pupils receiving Gaelic medium education in Scotland. Stirling: Scottish Centre for Information on Language Teaching and Research.
Johnston, Richard. 2002. Immersion in a Second or Additional Language at School: A Review of the International Research. Stirling: Scottish CILT.
MacLeòid, Dòmhnall Iain. 2007. “Sùil air ais”, in: Mairead NicNeacail and Mata M. MacÌomhair (eds.) Foghlam tro Mheadhan na Gàidhlig. Edinburgh: Dunedin Academic Press, 1-15.
MacLeòid, Dòmhnall Iain. 2008. Dòigh Eile Air a Ràdh. Stòrlann Nàiseanta na Gàidhlig.
McLeod, Wilson. 2004. “The challenge of corpus planning in Gaelic development”. Scottish Language 23: 68-92.
Morris, Delyth and Kathryn Jones. 2009. “Minority Language Socialisation within the Family: Investigating the Early Welsh Language Socialisation of Babies and Young Children in Mixed Language Families in Wales”. Journal of Multilingual and Multicultural Development, 28(6): 484-501.
Myers-Scotton, Carol. 2006. Multiple Voices: an Introduction to Bilingualism. Malden MA: Blackwell Publishers.
Ó Domhnalláin, Tomás. 1977. „Ireland: The Irish language in education”. Language Problems & Language Planning Vol.1 (2): 83-96.
Nance, Claire. 2013. Phonetic variation, sound change, and identity in Scottish Gaelic University of Glasgow: Unpublished Doctoral Thesis
Nance, Claire. 2015. “‘New’ Scottish Gaelic speakers in Glasgow: a phonetic study of language revitalisation”. Language in Society 44 (4): 553-579.
NicLeòid, Sìleas. 2015. A’ Ghàidhlig agus Beachdan nan Sgoilearan: Cothroman leasachaidh ann am Foghlam tro Mheadhan na Gàidhlig. Slèite: Clò Ostaig.
Nisbet, John and Joyce Watt. 1984. “Case Study”, in: K. Bell et al. (eds.), Conducting Small-Scale Investigations in Educational Management. London: Harper & Row.
O’Hanlon, Fiona, Wilson McLeod and Lindsay Paterson. 2010. Gaelic-Medium Education in Scotland: Choice and Attainment at the Primary and Early Secondary School Stages. Inverness: Bòrd na Gàidhlig.
O’Hanlon, Fiona. 2010b. “Gaelic in upper primary schools in Scotland: policy and practice”, in: Gillian. Munro and Iain. Mac an Tàilleir (eds.). Coimhearsnachd na Gàidhlig an-Diugh/Gaelic Communities Today. Edinburgh: Dunedin Academic Press: 99-115.
O’Hanlon, Fiona and Lindsay Paterson. 2015. “Gaelic Education since 1872”, in: Mark Freeman, Robert Anderson and Lindsay Paterson (eds), The Edinburgh History of Education in Scotland. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 304-325.
Stake, Robert E. 1995. The Art of Case Study Research. Thousand Oaks: Sage Publications.
Stockdale, Aileen, Bryan MacGregor and Gillian Munro. 2003. Migration, Gaelic-medium Education and Language Use. Ionad Nàiseanta na h-Imrich, Sabhal Mòr Ostaig.
Thomas, Enlli Môn and Dylan Bryn Roberts. 2011. “Exploring bilinguals’ social use of language inside and outside of the minority classroom”. Language and Education 25(2): 89-108.
Vila i Moreno, F. Xavier. 2008. “Language-in-education policies in the Catalan area”. AILA Review 21: 31-48.
Will, Vanessa. 2012. Why Kenny Can’t Can: The Language Socialization Experiences of Gaelic-Medium Educated Children In Scotland. University of Michigan: Unpublished PhD Thesis.
Yin, Robert K. 2009. Case Study Research and Applications: Design and Methods (4th Ed.). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.