The Silence of Heads

Open access

Abstract

On the basis of considerations involving complementizers, sentence-final particles, need, aspect, tense, focus and topic, agreement morphemes, determiners, verbrelated particles and adpositions, I reach the conclusion that many more heads in the sentential projection line (and elsewhere) must be taken to be silent than is usually thought. I then argue that this state of affairs ultimately reflects the fact that every projecting head is silent.

提要

本文探討的對象包括標句詞、句末助詞、“need”、體、時、焦點與話題、一致關係 語素、限定詞、與動詞有關的助詞、介詞,得出的結論是:在句子投射系列及其他 位置上,無聲中心語的數目應該遠多於過去所理解。本文進而指出,以上的情況都 說明一個事實,那就是中心語都是無聲的成分。

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • Aboh Enoch Oladé. 2004. The morphosyntax of complement-head sequences. Clause structure and word order patterns in Kwa. New York: Oxford University Press.

  • Agbayani Brian & Masao Ochi. 2014. The split lexical Insertion hypothesis. Paper presented at the 40th Annual Conference of the Berkeley Linguistic Society UC Berkeley February.

  • Algeo John. 2006. British or American English? A handbook of word and grammar patterns. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • Antonov Anton & Guillaume Jacques. 2014. Transitive need does not imply transitive have: Response to Harves and Kayne 2012. Linguistic Inquiry 45(1). 147-158.

  • Baker Mark. 1985. The mirror principle and morphosyntactic explanation. Linguistic Inquiry 16(3). 373-415.

  • Baker Mark C. 1988. Incorporation: A theory of grammatical function changing. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press.

  • Bolinger Dwight. 1971. A further note on the nominal in the progressive. Linguistic Inquiry 2(4). 584-586.

  • Borer Hagit. 2013. Heads and segments. Paper presented at the Workshop “Toward a Theory of Syntactic Variation” Bilbao 5-7 June.

  • Bresnan Joan W. 1972. Theory of complementation in English syntax Cambridge MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology dissertation.

  • Cattaneo Anderea. 2009. It is all about clitics: The case of a Northern Italian dialect like Bellinzonese. New York NY: New York University dissertation.

  • Charnavel Isabelle. 2011. On French un même and antispecificity. In Ingo Reich Eva Horch & Dennis Pauly. S (eds.) Proceedings of Sinn & Bedeutung 15. 133-147. Saarbrücken: Saarland University Press .

  • Chomsky Noam. 1995. The minimalist program. Cambridge MA: The MIT Press.

  • Chomsky Noam. 2000. Minimalist inquiries: The framework. In Roger Martin David Michaels Juan Uriagereka & Samuel Jay Keyser (eds.) Step by step: Essays in minimalist syntax in honor of Howard Lasnik. 89-155. Cambridge M.A: The MIT Press.

  • Chomsky Noam. 2001. Derivation by phase. In Michael J. Kenstowicz (ed.) Ken Hale. A Life in language. 1-52. Cambridge MA: The MIT Press.

  • Chomsky Noam. 2013. Problems of projection. Lingua 130. 33-49.

  • Cinque Guglielmo. 1999. Adverbs and functional heads. A cross-linguistic perspective. New York: Oxford University Press.

  • Cinque Guglielmo. 2004. ‘Restructuring’ and functional structure. In Adriana Belletti (ed.) (The Cartography of Syntactic Structures 3; Oxford Studies in Comparative Syntax) 132-191. New York: Oxford University Press (reprinted in Cinque (2006)).

  • Cinque Guglielmo. 2006. Restructuring and functional heads. (The Cartography of Syntactic Structures 4; Oxford Studies in Comparative Syntax). New York: Oxford University Press.

  • Cinque Guglielmo. 2010. The syntax of adjectives: A comparative study (Linguistic Inquiry Monographs 57). Cambridge MA: The MIT Press.

  • Cinque Guglielmo & Luigi Rizzi. 2010. The cartography of syntactic structures. In Bernd Heine & Heiko Narrog (eds.) The Oxford handbook of linguistic analysis. 51-65. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

  • Collins Chris. 2005. A smuggling approach to the passive in English. Syntax 8. 81-120.

  • Collins Chris. 2006. A note on derivational morphology. Ms. New York University.

  • Collins Chris. 2008. Home sweet home. NYU Working Papers in Linguistics 1. 1-34.

  • Coon Jessica. 2010. Complementation in Chol (Mayan): A theory of split ergativity Cambridge MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology dissertation.

  • Cuervo Maria Cristina. 2003. Datives at large. Cambridge MA: Massachusetts Institute of Technology dissertation.

  • Den Dikken Marcel. 1995. Particles: On the syntax of verb-particle triadic and causative constructions. New York: Oxford University Press.

  • Den Dikken Marcel. 2006. Relators and linkers. The syntax of predication predicate inversion and copulas. Cambridge MA: The MIT Press.

  • Downing Bruce T. 1978. Some universals of relative clause structure. In Joseph Harold Greenberg (ed.) Universals of Human Language 4: Syntax. 375-418. Stanford: Stanford University Press.

  • Duncan Daniel. 2014. Formalizing the novel-ish Ish-construction in English. Ms. New York University.

  • Etxepare Ricardo. 2010. From hearsay evidentiality to samesaying relations. Lingua 120. 604-627.

  • Frampton John. 2009. Distributed reduplication. Cambridge MA: The MIT Press.

  • Ghomeshi Jila. 1996. Projection and inflection: A study of Persian phrase structure. Toronto: University of Toronto dissertation.

  • Ghomeshi Jila. 2001. Control and thematic agreement. Canadian Journal of Linguistics 46. 9-40.

  • Haddican Bill Anders Holmberg Hidekazu Tanaka & George Tsoulas. 2014. Interrogative slifting in English. Lingua 138. 86-106.

  • Hale Kenneth L. 1973. Person marking in Walbiri. In Stephen R. Anderson & Paul Kiparsky (eds.) A festschrift for Morris Halle. 308-344. New York: Holt Rinehart and Winston.

  • Hale Kenneth & Samuel Jay Keyser. 1993. On argument structure and the lexical expression of syntactic relations. In Kenneth Hale & Samuel J. Keyser (eds.) The View from building 20. Essays in linguistics in honor of Sylvain Bromberger (Current Studies in Linguistics Series 24) 53-109. Cambridge MA: The MIT Press.

  • Hale Kenneth & Samuel Jay Keyser. 2002. Prolegomenon to a theory of argument structure. Cambridge MA: The MIT Press.

  • Halle Morris & Alec Marantz. 1993. Distributed morphology and the pieces of Inflection. In Kenneth Hale & Samuel Jay Keyser (eds.) The View from building 20. Essays in linguistics in honor of Sylvain Bromberger (Current Studies in Linguistics Series 24) 111-176. Cambridge MA: The MIT Press.

  • Halpert Claire & Michael Diercks. 2013. No need for “have” (for “need”): A reply to Harves and Kayne (2012). Ms. University of Minnesota and Pomona College.

  • Harris James W. 1969. Spanish phonology. Cambridge MA: The MIT Press.

  • Harves Stephanie & Richard S. Kayne. 2012. Having need and needing have. Linguistic Inquiry 43. 120-132.

  • Jayaseelan Karattuparambil A. 2008. Bare phrase structure and specifier-less syntax. Biolinguistics 2. 87-106.

  • Jayaseelan Karattuparambil A. 2010. Stacking stranding and pied piping: A proposal about word order. Syntax 13. 298-330.

  • Julien Marit. 2002. Syntactic heads and word formation. New York: Oxford University Press.

  • Katz Jerold J. & Paul M. Postal. 1964. An integrated theory of linguistic descriptions. Cambridge MA: The MIT Press.

  • Kayne Richard S.1975. French syntax. The transformational cycle. Cambridge MA: The MIT Press.

  • Kayne Richard S. 1981a. On certain differences between French and English. Linguistic Inquiry 12. 349-371 (reprinted in Kayne (1984)).

  • Kayne Richard S. 1981b. Two notes on the NIC. In Adriana Belletti Luciana Brandi & Luigi Rizzi (eds.) Theory of markedness in generative grammar. Proceedings of the 1979 GLOW Conference. 317-346. Pisa: Scuola Normale Superiore (reprinted in Kayne (1984)).

  • Kayne Richard S. 1984. Connectedness and binary branching. Dordrecht: Foris Publications.

  • Kayne Richard S. 1989. Null subjects and clitic climbing. In Osvaldo Jaeggli and Kenneth Safir (eds.) The null subject parameter (Studies in Natural Language and Linguistic Theory) 239-261. Dordrecht: Reidel (reprinted in Kayne (2000)).

  • Kayne Richard S. 1991. Romance clitics verb movement and PRO. Linguistic Inquiry 22. 647-686 (reprinted in Kayne (2000)).

  • Kayne Richard S. 1994. The antisymmetry of syntax. Cambridge MA: The MIT Press.

  • Kayne Richard S. 1997. The English complementizer of. Journal of Comparative Germanic Linguistics 1. 43-54.

  • Kayne Richard S. 1999. Prepositional complementizers as attractors. Probus 11. 39-73.

  • Kayne Richard S. 2000. Parameters and universals. New York: Oxford University Press.

  • Kayne Richard S. 2003. Silent years silent hours. In Lars-Olof Delsing Gunlög Josefsson Halldor Armann Sigurðsson & Cecilia Falk (eds.) Grammar in focus: Festschrift for Christer Platzack. 18 November 2003. 2. 209-226. Lund: Wallin and Dalholm (reprinted in Kayne (2005b)).

  • Kayne Richard S. 2004. Prepositions as probes. In Adriana Belletti (ed.) Structures and beyond (The Cartography of Syntactic Structures 3; Oxford Studies in Comparative Syntax) 192-212. New York: Oxford University Press.

  • Kayne Richard S. 2005a. On the Syntax of Quantity in English. In Kayne (2005b).

  • Kayne Richard S. 2005b. Movement and silence. New York: Oxford University Press.

  • Kayne Richard S. 2007a. Some English (and Romance) auxiliaries. (Handout of) paper presented at XVII Colloquium on Generative Grammar Universitat de Girona 13-15 June.

  • Kayne Richard S. 2007b. A short note on where vs. place. In Roberta Maschi Nicoletta Penello & Piera Rizzolatti (eds.) Miscellanea di Studi Linguistici offerti a Laura Vanelli da amici e allievi padovani. 245-257. Udine: Forum (reprinted in Kayne (2010c)).

  • Kayne Richard S. 2008a. Antisymmetry and the lexicon. Linguistic Variation Yearbook 8. 1-31 (also in A.M. di Sciullo and C. Boeckx (eds.) The biolinguistic enterprise: New perspectives on the evolution and nature of the human language faculty. 329-353. London: Oxford University Press (2011)) (reprinted in Kayne (2010c)).

  • Kayne Richard S. 2008b. Expletives datives and the tension between morphology and syntax. In Theresa Biberauer (ed.) The limits of syntactic variation. 175-217. Amsterdam: John Benjamins (reprinted in Kayne (2010c)).

  • Kayne Richard S. 2010a. Why isn’t this a complementizer? In Kayne (2010c).

  • Kayne Richard S. 2010b. Toward a syntactic reinterpretation of Harris and Halle (2005). In Reineke Bok-Bennema Brigitte Kampers-Manhe & Bart Hollebrandse (eds.) Romance languages and linguistic theory 2008 selected papers from “Going Romance” Groningen 2008. 145-170. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

  • Kayne Richard S. 2010c. Comparisons and contrasts. New York: Oxford University Press.

  • Kayne Richard S. 2011. Why are there no directionality parameters? In M. Byram Washburn K. McKinney- Bock E. Varis Ann Sawyer and Barbara Tomaszewicz (eds.) Proceedings of the 28th West Coast Conference on Formal Linguistics 1-23. Somerville MA: Cascadilla Proceedings Project (also in 2013 Studies in Chinese Linguistics 34 3-37).

  • Kayne Richard S. 2014. Once and Twice. In Carla Contemori & Lena Dal Pozzo (eds.) Inquiries into linguistic theory and language acquisition. Papers offered to Adriana Belletti. 114-129. Siena: CISCL Press (also in Studies in Chinese Linguistics 36(1) 1-20).

  • Kayne Richard S. 2015a. English one and ones as complex determiners. Ms. New York University.

  • Kayne Richard S. 2015b. Antisymmetry and morphology. Prefixes and suffixes. Paper presented at Roots IV New York University.

  • Kayne Richard S. & Jean-Yves Pollock. 2012. Toward an analysis of French hyper-complex inversion. In Laura Brugè Anna Cardinaletti Giuliana Giusti Nicola Munaro & Cecilia Poletto (eds.) Functional heads (Cartography of Syntactic Structures 7; Oxford Studies in Comparative Syntax) 150-167. New York: Oxford University Press (also in Kayne (2010)).

  • Kayne Richard S. & Jean-Yves Pollock. 2014. Locality and agreement in French hyper-complex inversion. In Enoch Oladé Aboh Maria Teresa Guasti & Ian Gareth Roberts(eds.) Locality. 32-57. New York: Oxford University Press.

  • Keenan Edward L. 1985. Relative clauses. In Timothy Shopen (ed.) Language typology and syntactic description. Volume II. Complex constructions.141-170. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

  • Koopman Hilda & Dominique Sportiche. 1989. Pronouns logical variables and logophoricity in Abe. Linguistic Inquiry 20. 555-588.

  • Koopman Hilda & Anna Szabolcsi. 2000. Verbal complexes. Cambridge MA: The MIT Press.

  • Laka Itziar. 2006. Deriving split ergativity in the progressive: The case of Basque. In Alans Johns Diane Massam & Juvenal Ndayiragije (eds.) Ergativity: Emerging issues. 173–196. Dordrecht: Springer.

  • Lakoff George & Stanley Peters. 1969. Phrasal conjunction and symmetric predicates. In David A. Reibel & Sanford A. Schane (eds.) Modern Studies in English. 113-142. New Jersey Englewood Cliffs: Prentice-Hall.

  • Larson Richard K. 1985. Bare-NP adverbs. Linguistic Inquiry 16. 595-621.

  • Law Ann. 2002. Cantonese sentence-final particles and the CP domain. UCL Working Papers in Linguistics 14. 375-398.

  • Łazorczyk Agnieszka Agata. 2010. Decomposing Slavic aspect: The role of aspectual morphology in Polish and other Slavic languages. Los Angeles CA: University of Southern California dissertation.

  • Leu Thomas. 2007. These here demonstratives. In Tatjana Scheffler Joshua Tauberer Aviad Eilam & Laia Mayol (eds.) Proceedings of the 30th Annual Penn Linguistics Colloquium Penn Working Papers in Linguistics 13(1). 141-154.

  • Leu Thomas. 2008. What for internally. Syntax 11. 1-25.

  • Leu Thomas. 2014. The architecture of determiners. New York: Oxford University Press.

  • Levinson Lisa. 2011. Possessive with in Germanic: have and the role of P. Syntax 14. 355–393.

  • Liao Wei-Wen Roger. 2015. Once upon an invisible time: On frequentative phrases in Chinese. Studies in Chinese Linguistics 36(1). 21-33.

  • Lin Shih-Yueh Jeff. 2014. Questions SFPs and silence. Ms. New York University.

  • Lindner Susan J. 1981. A lexico-semantic analysis of English verb particle constructions with out and up. San Diego: University of California San Diego dissertation.

  • Longobardi Giuseppe. 1994. Reference and proper names: A theory of N-movement in syntax and logical form. Linguistic Inquiry 25. 609-665.

  • Longobardi Giuseppe. 1996. The syntax of N-raising: A minimalist theory. OTS Working Papers. Utrecht: Research Institute for Language and Speech University of Utrecht.

  • Maddieson Ian. 1989. Prenasalized stops and speech timing. Journal of the International Phonetic Association 19. 57-66.

  • Marantz Alec. 1982. Re reduplication. Linguistic Inquiry 13. 435-482.

  • Marantz Alec. 1997. No escape from syntax: Don’t try morphological analysis in the privacy of your own lexicon. University of Pennsylvania Working Papers in Linguistics 4. 201-225.

  • Marušič Franc & Rok Žaucer. 2006. The “definite article” TA in colloquial Slovenian. In James Lavine Steven Franks Milla Tasseva-Kurktchieva & Hana Filip (eds.) 189-204. Ann Arbor: Michigan Slavic Publications.

  • Matthews Stephen & Virginia Yip. 1994. Cantonese: A comprehensive grammar. Abingdon: Routledge.

  • Morin Annick. 2009. On the Quebec French interrogative particle “tu”. In Enoch O. Aboh Elisabeth van der Linden Josep Quer & Petra Sleeman (eds.) Romance languages and linguistic theory: Selected papers from “Going Romance” Amsterdam 2007. 201-222. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

  • Nilsen Øystein. 2003. Eliminating positions: The syntax and semantics of sentence modification. Utrecht: University of Utrecht dissertation.

  • Nurse Derek. & Henry Muzale. 1999. Tense and aspect in Great Lakes Bantu languages. In Jean-Marie Hombert & Larry M. Hyman (eds.) Bantu Historical Linguistics. Theoretical and Empirical Perspectives. 517-544. Stanford CA: CSLI Publications.

  • Ouhalla Jamal. 2005. Clitic placement grammaticalization and reanalysis in Berber. In Guglielmo Cinque & Richard Kayne (eds.) The Oxford handbook of comparative syntax. 607-638. New York: Oxford University Press.

  • Paddock Harold. 1990. On explaining macrovariation in the Sibiliant and nasal suffixes of English. Folia Linguistica Historica 22 Issue Historica 9(1). 235-269.

  • Partee Barbara Hall. 1973. Some structural analogies between tenses and pronouns in English. The Journal of Philosophy 70(18). 601-609.

  • Pereltsvaig Asya. 2007. The universality of DP: A view from Russian. Studia Linguistica 61. 59-94.

  • Pesetsky David. 1993. Topic... comment. Natural Language and Linguistic Theory 11. 557-558.

  • Pesetsky David. 2014. Russian case morphology and the syntactic categories. Cambridge MA: MIT Press.

  • Poletto Cecilia. 2000. The higher functional field: Evidence from Northern Italian dialects. New York: Oxford University Press.

  • Pollock Jean-Yves. 1989. Verb movement universal grammar and the structure of IP. Linguistic Inquiry 20. 365-424.

  • Pollock Jean-Yves. 1998. On the syntax of subnominal clitics: Cliticization and ellipsis. Syntax 1. 300-330.

  • Rigau Gemma. 1984. De com si no és conjunció i d’altres elements interrogatius. Estudis gramaticals: Working papers in linguistics 1. 249-278. Bellaterra: Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona.

  • Rimell Laura. 2005. Tense and aspect projections in Niger-Congo languages. Ms. New York University.

  • Rizzi Luigi. 1997. The fine structure of the left periphery. In L. Haegeman (ed.) Elements of grammar. Handbook of generative syntax. 281-337. Dordrecht: Kluwer.

  • Rosenbaum Peter S. 1967. The grammar of English predicate complement constructions. Cambridge MA: The MIT Press.

  • Ross John R. 1970. On declarative sentences. In Roderick A. Jacobs & Peter S. Rosenbaum (eds.) Readings in English transformational grammar. 222-272. Waltham MA: Ginn.

  • Round Erich. 2014. Prestopping of nasals and laterals is only partly parallel. In Rob Pensalfini Myfany Turpin & Diana Guillemin (eds.) Language description informed by theory. 81-95. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

  • Sauerland Uli. 2009. Decomposing question acts. Snippets 20. 62-63.

  • Sauerland Uli & Kazuko Yatsushiro. 2014. Remind-me presuppositions and speech-act decomposition: Japanese “kke” and German “wieder” . Ms. ZAS Berlin.

  • Săvescu-Ciucivara Oana. 2009. A syntactic analysis of pronominal clitic clusters in Romance. The view from Romanian. New York: New York University dissertation.

  • Shlonsky Ur. 1989. The hierarchical representation of subject verb agreement. Ms. University of Haifa.

  • Simpson Andrew & Zoe Wu. 2002a. IP-raising tone sandhi and the creation of S-final particles: Evidence for cyclic spell-out. Journal of East Asian Linguistics 11. 67-99.

  • Simpson Andrew & Zoe Wu. 2002b. Understanding cyclic spell-out. In Mako Hirotani (ed.) Proceedings of North Eastern Linguistic Society (NELS) 32. 499-518. Amherst: GLSA Publications.

  • Sportiche Dominique. 1995. Clitic Constructions. In Laurie Zaring & Johan Rooryck (eds.) Phrase structure and the lexicon. 213-276. Kluwer: Dordrecht.

  • Starke Michal. 2004. On the inexistence of specifiers and the nature of heads. In Adriana Belletti (ed.) Structures and beyond (The Cartography of Syntactic Structures 3; Oxford Studies in Comparative Syntax) 252-268. New York: Oxford University Press.

  • Starke Michal. 2009. Nanosyntax. A short primer to a new approach to language. Nordlyd 36(1). 1-6.

  • Tang Sze-Wing. 2015. A generalized syntactic schema for utterance particles in Chinese. Lingua Sinica 1. 1-23.

  • Terzi Arhonto. 2010. Locative prepositions and place. In Guglielmo Cinque & Luigi Rizzi (eds.) Mapping spatial PPs (The Cartography of Syntactic Structures 6; Oxford Studies in Comparative Syntax) 196-224. New York: Oxford University Press.

  • Travis Lisa DeMena. 2003. Reduplication feeding syntactic movement. In Sophie Burelle & Stanca Somesfalean (ed.) Proceedings of Canadian Linguistics Association (CLA). 236-247. Montréal QC: Université du Québec à Montréal.

  • Turpin Myfany Katherine Demuth & April Ngampart Campbell. 2014. Phonological aspects of Arandic baby talk. In Rob Pensalfini Myfany Turpin & Diana Guillemin (eds.) Language description informed by theory. 49-80. Amsterdam: John Benjamins.

  • Vinet Marie Thérèse. 2000. Feature representation and -tu (pas) in Quebec French. Studia Linguistica 54(3). 381-411.

  • Williams Edwin. 1981. On the notions “lexically related” and “head of a word”. Linguistic Inquiry 12. 245-274.

Search
Journal information
Cited By
Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 800 285 10
PDF Downloads 295 153 5