Dynamic Image Analysis to Determine Granule Size and Shape, for Selected High Shear Granulation Process Parameters

Macho Oliver 1 , Čierny Matúš 1 , Gabrišová Ľudmila 1 , Juriga Martin 1 , Ružinský Radovan 1  and Peciar Peter 1
  • 1 Slovak University of Technology in Bratislava, Bratislava, Slovakia


The aim of this study was to investigate the usage of Dynamic Image Analysis for determination of size, shape and distribution of granules of microcrystalline cellulose, created by high shear granulation. A series of experiments was carried out to analyse the effect of process parameters on a created granule morphology. The amount of the granulation liquid and speed of the impeller have a significant effect on the median size granule value, the sphericity, the granule distribution width, but also on the granulation process yield.

If the inline PDF is not rendering correctly, you can download the PDF file here.

  • [1] Mahdi, F. M., Mehrabi, M., Hassanpour, A., Muller, F. L. “On the formation of core-shell granules in batch high shear granulators at two scales”, Powder Technology 356, pp. 253 – 262, 2019. DOI: 10.1016/j.powtec.2019.08.019

  • [2] Oulahna, D., Cordier, F., Galet, L., Dodds, J. A. “Wet granulation: The effect of shear on granule properties”, Powder Technology 130, pp. 238 – 246, 2003. DOI: 10.1016/S0032-5910(02)00272-3

  • [3] Rahmanian, N., Ghadiri, M., Jia, X., Stepanek, F. “Characterisation of granule structure and strength made in a high shear granulator”, Powder Technology 192, pp. 184 – 194, 2009. DOI: 10.1016/j.powtec.2008.12.016

  • [4] Mangwandi, C., Adams, M. J., Hounslow, M. J., Salman, A.D. “Effect of impeller speed on mechanical and dissolution properties of high-shear granules”, Chemical Engineering Journal 164, pp.305 – 315, 2010. DOI: 10.1016/j.cej.2010.05.039

  • [5] Rahmanian, N., Naji, A., Ghadiri, M. “Effects of process parameters on granules properties produced in a high shear granulator”, Chemical Engineering Research and Design 89, pp. 512 – 518, 2011. DOI: 10.1016/j.cherd.2010.10.021

  • [6] Gužela, Š., Juriga, M., Fekete, R. “Vplyv veľkosti častíc partikulárnej látky na uhol vnútorného trenia”, Strojnícky časopis – Journal of Mechanical Engineering 60 (2), pp. 105 – 120, 2009. ISSN 0039-2472

  • [7] Trpělková, Ž., Hurychová, H., Ondrejček, P., Svěrák, T., Šklubalová, Z. “Predicting the Angle of Internal Friction from Simple Dynamic Consolidation Using Lactose Grades as Model”, Journal of Pharmaceutical Innovation, Article in Press, 2019. DOI: 10.1007/s12247-019-09387-3

  • [8] Eckert, M. “Determination of the rheological properties of powdered materials”, Transfer 2017 – 18th internal scientific conference, pp. 1 – 8, 2017. ISBN 978-80-8075-787-8.

  • [9] Hurychová, H., Kuentz, M., Šklubalová, Z. Fractal “Aspects of Static and Dynamic Flow Properties of Pharmaceutical Excipients”, Journal of Pharmaceutical Innovation 13, pp. 15 – 26, 2018. DOI: 10.1007/s12247-017-9302-0

  • [10] Iveson, M. S., Litster, J. D., Hapgood, K., Ennis, B. J. “Nucleation, growth and breakage phenomena in agitated wet granulation processes: A review “, Powder Technology 117, pp. 3 – 39, 2001. DOI: 10.1016/S0032-5910(01)00313-8

  • [11] Van den Ban, S., Goodwin, D. J. “The Impact of Granule Density on Tabletting and Pharmaceutical Product Performance”, Pharmaceutical Research 34 (5), pp. 1002 – 1011, 2017. DOI: 10.1007/s11095-017-2115-5

  • [12] Peciar, P., Eckert, M., Fekete, R., Hrnčiar, V. “Analysis of Pharmaceutical Excipient MCC Avicel PH102 Using Compaction Equations”, Strojnícky časopis – Journal of Mechanical Engineering 66 (1), pp. 65 – 82, 2016. DOI: 10.1515/scjme-2016-0012

  • [13] Macho, O., Kabát, J., Gabrišová, Ľ., Peciar, P., Juriga, M., Fekete, R., Galbavá, P., Blaško, J., Peciar, M. “Dimensionless criteria as a tool for creation of a model for predicting the size of granules in high-shear granulation”, Particulate Science and Technology, Article in Press, 2019. DOI: 10.1080/02726351.2018.1548531

  • [14] Macho, O., Peciar, P., Peciar, M., Svěrák, T. “Distribution Characteristics and Compressibility of Agglomerates as a Reflection of Granulation Parameters”, Scientific Proceedings 23, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, STU in Bratislava, pp. 37 – 42, 2015. DOI: 10.1515/stu-2015-0007

  • [15] Wilms, A., Knop, K., Kleinebudde, P. “Combination of a rotating tube sample divider and dynamic image analysis for continuous on-line determination of granule size distribution”, International Journal of Pharmaceutics: X 1, pp. 1 – 7, 2019. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijpx.2019.100029

  • [16] Ulusoy, U. “Quantifying of particle shape differences of differently milled barite using a novel technique: Dynamic image analysis”, Materialia 8, 2019. DOI: 10.1016/j.mtla.2019.100434

  • [17] Ulusoy, U., Yekeler, M. “Dynamic image analysis of calcite particles created by different mills”, International Journal of Mineral Processing 133, pp. 83 – 90, 2014. DOI: 10.1016/j.minpro.2014.10.006

  • [18] Bamdini, V., Biondi, G., Cascone, E., Di Filippo, G. “Dynamic image analysis of Etna Sand in one-dimensional compression”, Measurement 104, pp. 336 – 346, 2017. DOI: 10.1016/j.measurement.2016.07.050

  • [19] Czajkowska, M., Sznitowska, M., Kleinebudde, P. “Determination of coating thickness of minitablets and pellets by dynamic image analysis”, International Journal of Pharmaceutics 495 (1), pp. 347 – 353, 2015. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijpharm.2015.08.102

  • [20] Shi, L., Feng, Y., Changquan, C. S. “Roles of Granule Size in Over-Granulation During High Shear Wet Granulation”, Journal of Pharmaceutical Science 99 (8), pp. 3322 – 3325, 2010. DOI: 10.1002/jps.22118

  • [21] Chitu, T. M., Oulahna, D., Hemati, M. “Rheology, granule growth and granule strength: Application to the wet granulation of lactose–MCC mixtures”, Powder Technology 208 (2), pp. 441 – 453, 2011. DOI: 10.1016/j.powtec.2010.08.041

  • [22] Benali, M., Gerbaud, V., Hemati, M. “Effect of operating conditions and physico–chemical properties on the wet granulation kinetics in high shear mixer”, Powder Technology 190 (1 – 2), pp. 160 – 169, 2009. DOI: 10.1016/j.powtec.2008.04.082

  • [23] Chitu, T. M., Oulahna, D., Hemati, M. “Wet granulation in laboratory scale high shear mixers: Effect of binder properties”, Powder Technology 206 (1 – 2), pp. 25 – 33, 2011. DOI: 10.1016/j.powtec.2010.07.012


Journal + Issues